The present analysis expands upon prior work by including a greater sample size, older subjects (in
whom measurements may be more challenging), and a broad range of kyphosis over which reliabilities were assessed. The two studies agree, however: inter- and intra-rater reliabilities approach perfect and do not differ between the Debrunner kyphometer and the CHIR98014 datasheet Flexicurve kyphosis index . Although Ohlen examined reliability of the Debrunner kyphometer in 31 young volunteers and find more Ettinger tested reliability of the Flexicurve kyphosis index in 75 women aged 65–91 years, these two studies used different statistical methods to quantify reliability than those used in the present study, precluding direct comparison of their reliability estimates to ours [22, 24]. To our knowledge, published work has not reported the validity of the Debrunner kyphometer or the Flexicurve kyphosis index compared to the standing Cobb angle. Based on a sub-sample of 120 women from the Fracture Intervention Trial, Kado et al. calculated an ICC of 0.68 for the kyphosis index compared to a supine Cobb angle; however, the supine position would be expected to lessen the angle of kyphosis and lower the validity estimate . Creating a mathematical formula that approximates Cobb angle based on a non-radiological kyphosis measure is not a novel idea and its value in avoiding
radiation and facilitating longitudinal measurement has been recognized . However, cross-calibration has been done only for the Debrunner instrument in an adolescent sample . The present study offers metrics that allow EGFR inhibitor researchers and clinicians to scale the Debrunner Parvulin angle, Flexicurve kyphosis index, and the newly developed Flexicurve kyphosis angle to a standing radiological Cobb angle in adults with hyperkyphosis. For example, the Flexicurve kyphosis index–Cobb translations could enhance the interpretation of an important finding from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF): that greater Flexicurve kyphosis indices predicted higher mortality independently
of vertebral fracture . It is now possible to approximate the Cobb angles that these indices represented: using the current study’s metric, the SOF sample’s mean predicted Cobb angle would be 43.8° (standard deviation, 10.7). Thus, the relative mortality hazard per kyphosis index standard deviation developed in SOF can be roughly translated to a 15% increase in mortality per each 10.7° increment in Cobb angle. This study intended to inform deliberations about which of the three non-radiological tests used in the Yoga for Kyphosis project might be best suited to large observational or interventional kyphosis studies, in which sizable numbers of participants would be evaluated at multiple times. Because these types of studies necessitate multiple raters, the first consideration is the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities. On this basis, all three assessments performed nearly perfectly and equally.