This clinical trial focused on efficacy and did not investigate e

This clinical trial focused on efficacy and did not investigate end-points relating to mode-of-action of the vaccine. In a murine model we investigated mode-of-action, efficacy, and safety of a homologous RENCA cell-based vaccine.\n\nDesign, setting, and participants: Six groups with 12 BALB/c mice per group received five vaccinations find more (lysate of 1 x 10(6)-1 x 10(7) RENCA cells, manufactured with or without prior IFN-gamma incubation) at 3-wk intervals before tumour transplantation and one vaccination 14 d afterwards.

Controls (12 mice) received only solvent. All mice were sacrificed 21 d after turnout transplantation.\n\nMeasurements: Animal welfare. tumour growth, number of metastases, and the presence of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

as determined by a (51)chromium-release assay. Adoptive immune transfer experiments (vaccination of nine mice with the RENCA vaccine or saline and transfer of serum, spleen cells, and CD4 and/or CD8 depleted spleen cells into five recipient mice each) were carried out to demonstrate involvement of different immune mechanisms.\n\nResults: All controls developed a renal tumour, compared to 7/72 animals (9.7%) in the vaccine groups. The mean number of lung metastases was 100 (range 3-750) in controls and 4 (range 0-196) in the vaccine groups, respectively. Tumour uptake and number of metastases were not related to the vaccine dose. The (51)chromium-release assay confirmed a significant tumour-specific cytolytic activity and marginally Selleck FK228 increased NK activity of splenocytes from vaccinated mice against RENCA cells compared to controls. Adoptive immune transfer experiments showed that the antitumoural effective immune mechanisms are cell-based. Conclusions: We could demonstrate the mode-of-action, efficacy, and safety of a homologous turnout vaccine in a RENCA model. These findings support the positive results from a phase-III trial with Reniale. (C) 2008 European OSI-744 mouse Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. Ail rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate parental

smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children.\n\nMETHODS: We performed a case-control study that included 105 children between 6 and 23 months of age who were divided into two groups: cases (children with 3 previous episodes of wheezing) and controls (healthy children without wheezing). The children’s exposure to cigarette smoking was estimated using a questionnaire completed by the mothers and by the children’s urinary cotinine levels.\n\nRESULTS: Based on both the questionnaire results and cotinine levels, exposure to cigarette smoking was higher in the households of cases in which the incidence of maternal smoking was significantly higher than that of paternal smoking.

These findings demonstrate that Tn plays an important role in the

These findings demonstrate that Tn plays an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart via on-off switching of the thin filament state, in concert with titin-based regulation.”
“Inteins are self-splicing proteins that occur in-frame within host-coded proteins. DNA elements coding for inteins insert specifically in highly conserved motifs of target genes. These mobile genetic elements have an uneven distribution and thus far have been found only in certain species of bacteria, archaea

and fungi, a few viruses of algae and amoebozoa and in the entomopathogen, Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). Here, we report the discovery of seven new inteins parasitizing iridoviruses infecting check details metazoans: three within their delta DNA polymerase genes and four in genes coding for their large ribonucleotide reductase subunit. learn more Analyses of coding sequences suggest that these inteins were acquired by ancestors shared by viruses currently

classified as members of different families of viruses with large double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes and then were maintained by vertical transmission, or lost. Of significant interest is the finding that inteins present in the delta DNA polymerases of iridoviruses insert at a different location into the YGDTDS motif when compared to those found in other viruses and prokaryotes. In addition, our phylogenetic investigations suggest that inteins present in the delta DNA polymerases of these viruses might have an origin different from those found in prokaryotes. Finally, we use the sequence features of the intein insertion sites in host genes to discuss the high polymorphisms of inteins within and among viral species and the immunity of their genetic counterparts in the eukaryotic hosts of these viruses. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Inflammation-induced activation of endothelium constitutes

one of the earliest changes during atherogenesis. New imaging techniques that allow detecting activated endothelial cells can improve the identification of persons at high cardiovascular risk in early stages. Quantum dots (QDs) have attractive optical properties such as bright fluorescence and high photostability, and have been increasingly studied and 3-deazaneplanocin A developed for bio-imaging and bio-targeting applications. We report here the development of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 binding peptide (VCAM-1 binding peptide) functionalized QDs (VQDs) from amino QDs. It was found that the QD fluorescence signal in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) treated endothelial cells in vitro was significantly higher when these cells were labeled with VQDs than amino QDs. The VQD labeling of TNF-alpha-treated endothelial cells was VCAM-1 specific since pre-incubation with recombinant VCAM-1 blocked cells’ uptake of VQDs. Our ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed that in the inflamed endothelium, QD fluorescence signal from VQDs was also much stronger than that of amino QDs.

We focus on how the relative amount of deviatoric and volumetric

We focus on how the relative amount of deviatoric and volumetric deformation affects strain accumulation and energy dissipation and find that uniaxial stress conditions lead to the highest rate of strain accumulation and dissipation. A characterization of the molecular-level processes responsible for strain accumulation provides insight into the observed role of volumetric and deviatoric deformations and explains the relatively low strain accumulation for purely deviatoric or volumetric loads. These results may help the design of polymer matrix composites with improved performance under cyclic loading conditions. (C)

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This paper considers online stochastic reservation problems, where requests S63845 ic50 come online and must be dynamically allocated to limited resources in order to maximize profit. Multi-knapsack problems with CP 456773 or without overbooking are examples of such online stochastic reservations. The paper studies how to adapt the online stochastic framework and the consensus and

regret algorithms proposed earlier to online stochastic reservation systems. On the theoretical side, it presents a constant sub-optimality approximation of multi-knapsack problems, leading to a regret algorithm that evaluates each scenario with a single mathematical programming optimization followed by a small number of dynamic programs for one-dimensional knapsacks. It also proposes several integer programming models for handling cancellations and proves their equivalence. On the experimental side, the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the regret algorithm on multi-knapsack problems ( with and without overbooking) based on the benchmarks proposed earlier.”
“Genetic analysis of plant relies on high yields of pure DNA samples. DNA isolation is difficult in woody plants because of presence of polysaccharides, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites that interfere during isolation. A quick, simple and improved DNA extraction method for polyphenols DNA Damage inhibitor and polysaccharide rich leaves of Annona reticulata has been developed. A CTAB based extraction

method which uses diatomite to remove polyphenols and polysaccharide proved to be the best. The DNA isolated by this method allowed recovery of good quality of DNA suitable for PCR amplification and restriction digestion.”
“Objectives: To examine the relationship between hospital volume and patient outcomes for New South Wales hospitals performing oesophagectomy and gastrectomy for oesophagogastric cancer. Design, setting and patients: A retrospective, population-based cohort study of NSW residents diagnosed with a new case of invasive oesophageal or gastric cancer who underwent oesophagectomy or gastrectomy between 2001 and 2008 in NSW hospitals using linked de-identified data from the NSW Central Cancer Registry, the National Death Index and the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection.

Human astrocytes were treated with alpha-syn at different concent

Human astrocytes were treated with alpha-syn at different concentrations and time points to determine the effective membrane permeability of the peptide. After alpha-syn treatment, Tubastatin A cell line we analyzed apoE and cholesterol levels in the astrocyte membrane. Lastly, we performed immunocytochemistry for CFAP in control and alpha-syn treated cells. Our results indicate membrane apoE was reduced and redistributed from a nuclear and membranous dominated expression to the cytosol. Cholesterol levels were also reduced in the astrocyte cell membrane.

GFAP expression was sharply increased in alpha-syn treated cells indicating that alpha-syn may contribute to reactive gliosis. Our results support the conclusion that: astrocytes play a role in pathological mechanisms in synucleinopathies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Systematic isolation of microbial metabolites has been performed to construct microbial metabolite libraries or fraction libraries. A novel macrolactam, verticilactam (1), was isolated from a library of Streptomyces spiroverticillatus JC-8444 The structure was determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectrometric measurements. 1 had a unique 16-membered macrolactam skeleton including a beta-keto-amide moiety”
“Purpose. We report a case of focal myelinated nerve fiber (MNF) loss caused by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.\n\nCase

Report. A 62-year-old woman with segmental MNF presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. One year later, MNF lost superiorly, with preservation of inferior segment MNF. Spectral-domain optical selleck products coherence tomography of the optic nerve head and posterior pole retinal thickness showed localized thinning of superior nerve fibers (axons) and retinal thickness.\n\nConclusions. This case highlights the focal nature of anterior

ischemic optic neuropathy and may be the first patient in whom sectoral loss of myelinated nerve fiber has been photographically documented. (Optom Vis Sci 2013; 90: e138-e141)”
“Objective. To investigate the clinical features of paranasal sinus osteomas and to estimate the growth rate of these tumors in a large series of patients.\n\nDesign. Case series with chart review.\n\nSetting. University hospital, tertiary referral center.\n\nSubjects and Methods. The authors see more retrospectively reviewed the paranasal sinus tomography scans that were taken between January 1997 and April 2008 to find patients with paranasal sinus osteomas. A questionnaire was performed to evaluate the possible clinical symptoms associated with sinus osteomas, and control paranasal sinus computed tomography was taken for patients in whom paranasal computed tomography examination had been done at least 1 year ago.\n\nResults. A total of 17,154 paranasal sinus computed tomographies of 14,137 patients were reviewed, and 243 cases of paranasal sinus osteomas were found.

The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid

The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating

opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses bigger than = 100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density.”
“Purpose We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of a novel oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) formulation (S-1), administered according to a tailored dose regimen.\n\nMethods S-1 was administered orally for 28 days, followed by 14 days of no treatment, in 23 patients who received a tailored dose of S-1, adjusted on the basis of individual creatinine clearance and body surface click here area. In 8 of the patients, pharmacokinetic study was performed on the 6 points on 7th day after S-1 administration.\n\nResults Of the 23 patients enrolled in this study, 2 (8.7 %) had

a partial response and 14 (60.9 %) had stable disease. The disease control rate was 69.6 BAY 73-4506 cost % (16/23) (95 % confidence interval, 50.8-88.4 %). Grade 3/4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were minor. In the pharmacokinetic study group, the maximum plasma concentration (C (max)) and the area under the plasma concentration curve of 5-FU at all 6 points after administration of the tailored S-1 dose regimen were similar to the values reported in a previous study describing cancer patients with normal renal function who received a standard dose of S-1 (80 mg/m(2)/day).\n\nConclusions Our results suggest that tailored S-1 monotherapy is safe and therapeutically useful as first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced and recurrent non-small cell lung cancer.”
“A 1.5-y-old female Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with a large subcutaneous mass surrounding the right shoulder. Radiography revealed dislocation of the right humeral articulation and osteolytic lesions

of the right scapula. Histologically, the mass was composed of spindle to stellate cells arranged in fascicles interwoven with delicate collagen fibers, and neoplastic cells infiltrated the bone, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous tissues. Neoplastic Dehydrogenase inhibitor cells stained intensely positive for vimentin and negative for S100 protein, neurofilament, and desmin. A minority of neoplastic cells (10% to 20%) stained moderately for smooth muscle actin. The mass was diagnosed as a fibrosarcoma. Although fibrosarcomas are relatively common in dogs and cats, this is the first report of fibrosarcoma in a domestic Djungarian hamster.”
“We aimed to gain a mechanistic understanding of the role of RACK1 in breast carcinoma migration/metastasis. Migration assays were conducted in breast carcinoma cell lines.

Transcripts were analyzed for common themes Results: Parents’ ex

Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Results: Parents’ experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept

Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families’ oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is port of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played on important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Conclusions: Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wonted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children’s preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental core for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families. (Pediatr Dent 2010;32:518-24) Apoptosis Compound Library research buy Received July 1, 2009 / Lost Revision October 3, 2009 / Accepted October 5, 2009″
“Background: Cross-sectional studies of the association between

hypertension (HTN) and brain atrophy have shown reductions in prefrontal, temporal, and hippocampal volumes, selleck chemicals and have identified thinner cortices across the cortical mantle. Method: In the current study,

we followed 96 participants enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging over a mean interval of 8 years (mean age at baseline = 68.7) and compared those who are hypertensive (n = 49) throughout the study with those who are normotensive (n = 47). Results: Hypertensive individuals show an increased rate of thinning compared with normotensive individuals in several regions, including the frontomarginal gyrus in the left hemisphere, and the superior temporal, fusiform, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex in the right hemisphere. We also investigated the effects of midlife blood pressure (BP), intervisit variability in BP prior to imaging, and duration of HTN on areas that show subsequent differences in the rates of cortical thinning between groups. We found that higher midlife BP and longer durations of HTN predicted a higher rate of thinning in the right superior temporal gyrus. We also found that greater variability in SBP but not DBP predicted a higher rate of thinning in the right superior temporal gyrus, frontomarginal gyrus, and occipital pole. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that hypertensive individuals show increased rates of thinning compared with normotensive individuals and suggest intervisit BP variability and midlife BP contribute to these longitudinal differences.

In this study, we developed a novel method of PPAR gamma ligand s

In this study, we developed a novel method of PPAR gamma ligand screening by measuring the increase in fluorescent polarization accompanied by the interaction of a fluorescent co-activator and PPAR gamma. Sterol receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1), a major PPAR gamma co-activator, was probed

by fluorescent TAMRA by the Amber codon fluorescence. probe method. Polarization was increased by adding PPAR gamma ligands to a solution containing labeled SRC-1 (designated TAMRA-SRC-S) and PPAR gamma. The disassociation constants (Kd) of the PPAR gamma synthesized ligands, pioglitazone (221 nm), troglitazone (83.0 nm), and 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-Delta PGJ(2)) (156 nm), were determined by this method. Farnesol (2.89 mu m) and bixin (21.1 mu m), which we have reported to be PPAR gamma ligands, increased the fluorescent HDAC inhibition polarization. Their Kd values were in agreement with the ED(50) values obtained in the luciferase assay. The results

indicate that the method is valuable for screening natural PPAR gamma ligands.”
“Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in the energetic metabolism of the parasite and leading to its death. The aim of this study

was to evaluate 4EGI-1 alterations in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose concentrations caused by low dosage treatments of the hosts with albendazole and praziquantel. Therefore, T. crassiceps intraperitoneally infected mice were treated by gavage feeding with 5.75 or 11.5 mg/kg of albendazole Selleckchem SCH727965 and 3.83 or 7.67 mg/kg of praziquantel. The treated mice were euthanized after 24 h and the cysticerci collected were morphologically classified into initial, larval or final phases. Concentrations of the organic acid produced and glucose were evaluated to detect alterations into the glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways through chromatography and spectrophotometry. The low dosage treatment caused a partial blockage of the glucose uptake by the cysticerci in spite of the non significant difference between its concentrations. An activation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was noted in the cysticerci that received the treatment due to an increase in the production of citrate, malate and alpha-ketoglutarate and the consumption of oxaloacetate, succinate and fumarate. The detection of alpha-ketoglutarate indicates that the cysticerci which were exposed to the drugs after host treatment present different metabolic pathways than the ones previously described after in vitro treatment. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 10: 10 1074/mcp M111 009241, 1-15

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 10: 10.1074/mcp.M111.009241, 1-15, 2011.”
“Background: Intradermally administered influenza vaccine is as immunogenic as intramuscular vaccine at a lower unit dose. New microinjection systems could allow self-administration of vaccine, potentially reducing the cost and inconvenience.\n\nObjective: To compare the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, success rate, and acceptability of self- versus nurse-administered intradermal selleck compound trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine.\n\nMethods: Adults (18-59 years old) were randomized

to either self- or nurse-administered intradermal vaccine. Prior to vaccination, participants completed a questionnaire and had blood drawn for hemagglutination inhibition titres. Participants in the nurse-administered group were vaccinated by study personnel. The self-administered group were given an instruction sheet and administered their own vaccine. All participants completed a questionnaire and adverse event diaries for 21 days post vaccination, at which time blood was again collected.\n\nResults: Of the 228 participants, 115 were randomized to self-administration and 113 to nurse administration. Groups did not differ by sex, age, or levels of seroprotection at baseline. Of the 114 who completed self-administration, 106 (93%) were successful on the first attempt. MK-8776 There were no group

differences in measures of immunogenicity for any of the strains. Self-administering participants reported a lower mean pain rating at vaccination but had larger areas of redness post-vaccination. Seventy percent of all participants said they would prefer intradermal over intramuscular vaccinations in the future, if given the choice.\n\nConclusion:

Compared to nurse-administered intradermal influenza vaccine, self-administered vaccine was immunologically non-inferior AS1842856 and reached all EMA immunogenicity criteria for the A strains, was highly successful and well-accepted by study participants. Together, these data provide preliminary evidence of feasibility for this method of influenza vaccine administration, which may improve vaccine uptake in adults and increase efficiency of vaccine delivery during outbreaks. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although a chemokine CXCL12 is implicated in some infectious diseases, especially those in which T cell-mediated immunity plays critical roles, the relevance of CXCL12 to tuberculosis has never been elucidated. To determine the clinical efficacy of CXCL12 as a diagnostic marker for tuberculous (TB) pleurisy, we measured CXCL12 concentration in pleural fluid and serum from patients with various etiologies.\n\nOf 60 patients with pleural fluid, the median age of TB patients was 52 which was significantly lower than 71 of non-TB patients (P < 0.01).

This review is organized as a function of the nature of the final

This review is organized as a function of the nature of the final polyurethane systems; hence we describe the preparation of linear thermoplastic and crosslinked polyurethanes derived from oleic and undecylenic acids-based diols and polyols, respectively.”
“This paper aims at providing a novel method for evaluating the emotion elicitation procedures in an electroencephalogram

(EEG)-based emotion recognition NVP-LDE225 mouse setup. By employing the frontal brain asymmetry theory, an index, namely asymmetry Index (AsI), is introduced, in order to evaluate this asymmetry. This is accomplished by a multidimensional directed information analysis between different EEG sites from the two opposite brain hemispheres. The proposed approach was applied this website to three-channel (Fp1, Fp2, and F3/F4 10/20 sites) EEG recordings drawn from 16 healthy

right-handed subjects. For the evaluation of the efficiency of the AsI, an extensive classification process was conducted using two feature-vector extraction techniques and a SVM classifier for six different classification scenarios in the valence/arousal space. This resulted in classification results up to 62.58% for the user independent case and 94.40% for the user-dependent one, confirming the efficacy of AsI as an index for the emotion elicitation evaluation.”
“This study was done to validate the screening tool ‘Home Screening Questionnaire (HSQ)’ against the gold standard ‘Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment (HOME)’ inventory, using diagnostic test evaluation. Both HOME inventory and HSQ were administered YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 in vivo by separate observers, with children less than 3 years of age, among 200 families belonging to 14 anganwadi areas. There was a high sensitivity of 83 and a high specificity of 82 observed for a cutoff point of ‘less than or equal to’ 19 on HSQ against HOME Inventory as Gold Standard, as was also observed in the Receiver

Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The likelihood ratio (I-R) for positive test was 4.6 (95% CI, 3.3 to 6.9) which implies that the families with poor home environment are 4.6 times more likely to have the HSQ score ‘less than or equal to’ 19 as compared to normal families. The results of this study imply that we can confidently apply the HSQ in developmental evaluation clinics and reserve HOME inventory for research purposes.”
“We used data collected from 1989 to 2009 from 151 shallow (mean depth < 3 m) temperate lakes in Denmark to explore the influence of lake trophic status, surface area and catchment size on the seasonal dynamics of the air-water flux of CO2. Monthly CO2 fluxes were derived from measurements of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), pH, ionic strength, temperature, and wind speed.

Mindfulness-based group interventions appear to have utility

\n\nMindfulness-based group interventions appear to have utility in this patient group and show promise for reducing anxiety, avoidance, and fear of cancer recurrence. Peer learning appeared to be helpful in generating acceptance of advancing disease.”
“The expanded endonasal approaches

to the skull base are modular approaches that arise from the sphenoidal sinus. The reconstructive techniques in these approaches are key to avoid postoperative complications. Available flaps for reconstruction include the pedicled nasoseptal flap, the transpterygoid temporoparietal fascia flap, and the posterior pedicle inferior turbinate flap (PPITF), among others. Recently, the middle see more turbinate flap has been described in a cadaveric study. We report our preliminary experience in the use of this middle turbinate vascularized Dihydrotestosterone mouse flap for skull base reconstruction after expanded endonasal approaches.\n\nTen patients underwent reconstructive procedures with the mucoperiostial vascularized middle turbinate flap. Capability

to cover the defect, closure success, operative time and complications related to the procedure are retrospectively analyzed.\n\nA satisfactory closure was obtained in all procedures, and there were no complications related to the technique. Required operative time was similar to the time employed for the nasoseptal flap.\n\nThe vascularized middle turbinate flap is a reliable reconstructive technique for the Momelotinib JAK/STAT inhibitor reconstruction of moderate-sized skull base defects. It can be considered either as the first choice of closure or as an alternative to the nasoseptal flap when this is not available. Different flap combinations may facilitate skull base defect reconstruction.”
“In the previous studies, the cytotoxicities of anthranilate sulfonamides were investigated. Herein, the bioactivities of 4-substituted (X = NO(2), OCH(3), CH(3), Cl) benzenesulfonamides of anthranilic acid (5-8) are reported. The results revealed that all sulfonamides selectively

exerted antifungal activity (25-50% inhibition) against C. albicans at 4 mu g/mL. Furthermore, compounds 6 and 8 show antioxidative (SOD) activity. These sulfonamides, except for 6, selectively display cytotoxic effects toward MOLT-3 cells. It is interesting to note that sulfonamides with electron withdrawing substituent (5, X = NO(2)) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. This study provided preliminary structure-activity relationship of the anthranilic sulfonamides that is useful for further in-depth investigation.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intraviteral bevacizumab (IVB) in diabetic macular edema (DME), using multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)\n\nMethods: Sixty-four eyes of 32 patients with bilateral symmetric clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were included in the study. After taking a baseline mfERG, macular photocoagulation (MPC) was done in all eyes. After 7 days, 1.