g , selected reaction monitoring (SRM) or multiple reaction moni

g., selected reaction monitoring (SRM) or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)) is employed. Among the OSI-744 mw methods based on the three requirements, the first method or its variants has been used broadly in practice [19,20]. The second one is impractical for quantification of numerous species

in a lipidomic approach while studies with one or limited species have been widely reported [21]. The third one makes it possible to use one standard (or one standard curve) to quantify individual lipid species in a class but is mostly used for a rough quantitation with less accuracy compared to the former two methods [22-24]. To perform quantitative analysis of lipids by LC-MS, the

limit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of detection, the standard curves and their linear dynamic ranges are generally pre-determined Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical before sample analysis. In practice, at least one internal standard for each lipid class is generally included in the sample to normalize the differential ionization efficiencies from different lipid classes that possess differential head groups [25,26]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Accordingly, each of the ion peaks of individual species is first normalized to the internally added control species from the same class prior to comparison with the appropriate standard curve(s) for quantification. This approach reduces the variability of quantification by diminishing the effects of the variations of chromatographic separation conditions and/or ESI-MS conditions that can dramatically alter the detected

absolute Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ion counts of a particular species but much less affect the relative ion counts of the species obtained by normalizing to the ion counts of the internal standard detected under identical conditions if co-eluted or nearly identical conditions if eluted at different times. Two major LC-MS techniques for quantitative analysis of lipids include selected ion extraction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (SIE) and SRM. The SIE approach utilizes a survey scan for quantification while the SRM (or MRM) approach performs tandem MS and monitors a particular pair (or pairs) of precursor/product ions at a specified elution time for quantification. The SIE approach is usually used for “global” lipid analysis where mass spectra are acquired continuously whatever during a chromatographic separation. The particular ions of interest are extracted from the acquired data array and the reconstituted peak of each extracted ion can be quantified with comparisons to either the reconstituted ion peak of an internal standard or a standard curve of the particular ion established under identical experimental conditions. The advantage of this approach is its simple instrumentation because no tandem MS is required but the specificity of the extracted ion to the targeted species is always a concern.

The aim of the study was to investigate the intuitive use of dif

The aim of the study was to investigate the intuitive use of different laryngeal airway devices by first-year medical students. Therefore, the insertion of a LMA-Classic and a LMA-Fastrach was compared in a resuscitation model. The effects of a short teaching programme and the improvement on the laypersons’ performance after these minimal theoretical instructions were examined. Moreover, the retention of skills was reviewed to evaluate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical long-term effects. Methods Subjects; Ethical

Considerations Subjects embodied were 139 first year medical students. They were tested at the very beginning of their studies, during their first two weeks at the medical faculty of the University of Aachen. All subjects were informed that their performance would be evaluated and used for scientific purposes. No personal data was collected. Furthermore, no influence on the health of the subjects was expected. Therefore, the local research ethical committee of the RWTH Aachen waived to obtain informed consent from each person. None of the subjects were prompted or prepared in any way prior to the study. Equipment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The laryngeal airway devices tested were the LMA-Classic™ and the LMA-Fastrach™ (LMA Vertriebs-GmbH, Germany). Both instruments were

applied in size 4. To standardize cuff inflation volume the recommended maximum was used. Via a ventilatory tube the trachea was connected with a volumeter on which the tidal volume could be read after Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical positioning the airway tool. The exact time from first handling the device to correct insertion was buy PD98059 recorded with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a laboratory stop watch (Junghans, Germany). The airway trainer (Laerdal, Norway) was used as a model for insertion of the two airway devices. The airway trainer was placed on a table and therefore easily accessable. Study protocol After randomization, the students were assigned to insert either the LMA-Classic or the LMA-Fastrach. Three physicians skilled in providing and teaching Advanced Life Support (ALS) (certified Instructors of the European Resuscitation Council, ERC) were present during the whole performance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of

each student and recorded time until the particular device was meant to be placed Cell press correctly. All tested persons were instructed with the same standardized sentence: “This patient is unconscious and not breathing. The device in front of you may help to keep the airway open. Please insert the instrument as you consider it correctly”. The test ended when the subject confirmed the correct position in his opinion. Afterwards the cuff was inflated by the observer according to the manufacturer’s suggestions. Tidal volume was measured with a volumeter by ventilating with an ambu bag. A tidal volume under 150 ml was considered as insufficient. Beside measuring the time to correct placement of the laryngeal airway, number of attempts and initial tidal volume were documented. Air leakage was identified by audible sound during ventilation.

We believe that transgenic mice overexpressing mutated human APP,

We believe that transgenic mice overexpressing mutated human APP, in an early stage, around 8 to 10 months of age, and showing an initial cognitive impairment, few Aβ deposits, and some cholinergic deficit could be considered a model of MCI. These mice have been used for testing treatments, such as vaccination, aiming to prevent Aβ deposition and subsequent memory loss.50,51 A 7-month treatment with cholinesterase

inhibitors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reduced neither Aβ deposition nor memory impairment.52 Conversely, in 6-month-old Tg 2576 mice, a 6-month treatment with Ginkgo biloba did not prevent the plaque deposition and protein oxidation, but reduced the spatial memory impairment.53 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These papers demonstrate that transgenic mice overexpressing Aβ may be useful models for testing drugs potentially active in preventing or delaying the conversion from MCI to AD. Aging monkeys Monkeys of different Regorafenib molecular weight species have been widely used for studying the effect of age on memory, beginning from the classic papers by Bartus et al.54,55 A review comparing the memory changes occurring in normal aging in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats was published in 2003 by Erickson and Barnes.56 Given the similarities in cognitive aging between human and nonhuman primates, MCI should also occur in the latter. However, in most papers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in which the age-associated

changes in cognitive processes have been investigated in monkeys, only two groups of monkeys, young and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical old, were compared. In rhesus monkeys, the species that is most commonly used, the age of “young” animals ranges between 3 and 10 years and that of the “old” between 23 and 30 years. Within the latter age range, memory impaired and unimpaired monkeys can be recognized,57 but impairment also depends on the task that the animals are required to perform. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical For instance,58 aged monkeys were impaired in a delayed response test of visuospatial memory when the retention interval of the task

was increased from 0 to 10 s. When trained in a delayed non-matching-to-sample test of visual object recognition out memory, the aged animals took longer to learn the task, but were only minimally impaired if recognition memory was tested at retention intervals ranging from 10 s to 22 h. In contrast to their relatively intact performance in the object recognition task, the same monkeys were dramatically impaired in a second version of the test that required subjects to remember the temporal order in which objects were presented. In a comparison of four groups of monkeys aged 3 to 6, 14 to 17, 20 to 24, and 26 to 30 years,59 the only behavioral deficit in the 14- to 17-year-old group was detected using a difficult visuospatial orientation task.

05, Wilcoxon rank test), left and right diffusion parameters val

05, Wilcoxon rank test), left and right diffusion parameters values of each bundle were pooled for subsequent analyses. From a structural point of view, each bundle had specific diffusion tensor characteristics (Fig. 5; Table 1). CST was the most organized structure exhibiting significantly lower ADC values compared to OR, genu, body, and splenium of CC (ANOVA, P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons) (Fig. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5). CST also showed higher FA values

compared to OR, genu, and body of CC (ANOVA, P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons) (Fig. 5). In contrast, OR appeared as the less-organized structure with significant higher ADC relative to CST, body, and genu of CC, and significant lower FA compared to all the others tracts (ANOVA, P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Table 1 Mean values (± standard deviation) of apparent diffusion coefficient Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal diffusivity (λ//), and transverse diffusivity (λ) Figure 5 Comparison of diffusion tensor properties observed in the different tracts. Boxplots of ADC (mm2/s),

FA, λ// (mm2/s), and λ (mm2/s) values at the body of corpus callosum (CCb), the genu of corpus callosum (CCg), the splenium of … Variation of WM tract diffusion characteristics according to gestational Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical age According to the poor linear fitting of diffusion parameters with age, the Sorafenib solubility dmso polynomial function of degree 3 was chosen to model the variation of parameters during gestation. We defined the transition periods between the different stages of maturation numerically from the intersections of the λ// and λ polynomial fitting functions according to age. In order to normalize variations and dynamics of the different Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parameters, values were rescaled according to the Z-score formula using the mean values and standard deviations of the whole population for each parameter. Each normalized parameter was plotted against age

for each bundle and the distribution was fitted using a 3 degree polynomial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical function. Models were valid (R > 0.5 and P < 0.05) for all diffusion parameters L-NAME HCl of each bundle except for diffusion parameters of the genu of CC (P = 0.10–0.9), the FA of the body of CC (P = 0.16), and the λ// of the splenium (P = 0.11). During the 23–38 GW period, differences in the relative variations of longitudinal (λ//) and radial diffusivity (λ) curves identified three distinct phases of water molecule restriction (Fig. 6). The transition between two phases was determined as the time point when normalized λ// and λ curves versus gestational age were crossing. The precise time point was determined numerically by equalizing the two equations of the polynomial fitting curves. Figure 6 Variation of diffusion parameters during gestation according to the WM structure.

A similar finding was reported by Levitt and Boyle14 in a Canadia

A similar finding was reported by Levitt and Boyle14 in a Canadian population. In this study, eight different strata were identified in the Province of Ontario, based on

latitude. A negative correlation between latitude and rates of SAD was found, contradictory to the prediction of the latitude hypothesis. The authors themselves noted the possibility that this could be explained by a tendency of genetically protected individuals to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical remain at more northern latitudes, whereas others would tend to migrate southward. Another factor to consider in studies of this type is that relative to urban dwellers, rural communities may have significantly more exposure to natural light in the wintertime, based on their daily routines. Yet another complicating factor is local weather conditions, which might greatly affect light availability GDC-0973 supplier independent of latitude. Taking Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these factors into consideration, a robust test of the latitude hypothesis might require large-scale studies using within-subject designs to look at seasonal mood changes in genetically homogenous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical groups who migrate North or South. It would be important to

study populations travelling in both directions, as immigration is itself associated with the risk for depression. A consistent pattern of within-subject increases in seasonality with northern migration above the equator, and decreased seasonality with the opposite direction of migration, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical would lend further support to the latitude hypothesis. Melatonin Another strategy to test the photoperiodic hypothesis of SAD is to study the hormone melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland in response to ambient darkness. In animals, the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (SCN) regulates seasonal changes in various aspects of behavior, including food intake and reproduction, by transmitting a melatonin signal of day length. This signal is expressed through the duration of melatonin secretion at night, which is longer in winter than in summer. Over the course of the year, the SCN is able to track changing times of dawn and dusk. Various central

and peripheral sites can respond to the melatonin signal produced in this way to help an organism adapt to seasonal environmental conditions. While the anatomical Rutecarpine circuitry that mediates this photoperiodic mechanism is present in humans,15 its functional significance in our species remains controversial With respect to SAD, demonstrating differences in this system between SAD patients and matched controls would lend support to the hypothesis that SAD is a chronobiological disorder tied to changes in the photoperiod across seasons. One approach to examining a possible photoperiodic model of SAD has been to compare melatonin rhythms in SAD patients and normal controls across the winter and summer seasons.

2) In order to comprehend the occurrence of enhancements, the pe

2). In order to comprehend the occurrence of enhancements, the peculiarities of interference need to be considered and its dissimilarities to priming highlighted. In his review on neuroimaging studies of priming, DNA Methyltransferas inhibitor Henson (2003) concluded that enhancement occurs in regions engaged in an additional process for primed compared to unprimed stimuli,

and suppression occurs in regions occupied in processes for both primed and unprimed stimuli. In interference paradigms, the pairs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of distractor (prime) and target picture are compared between conditions, and therefore all conditions should require the same language processes. Nevertheless, facilitatory interference does not generally lead to suppressed language-related brain activations, just Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as inhibitory interference does not generally cause increased activations for monitoring/cognitive control. Thus, there appear to be profound differences between interference

(defined as an overlap in processing of prime and target) and priming (defined as beneficial preactivation of the target). In priming paradigms, the interval between prime and target usually varies from seconds to months (Tulving and Schacter 1990). However, if the prime is presented shortly before the target (like in masked priming paradigms, e.g., Rossell et al. 2003), the “event-related hemodynamic response is still an aggregate response to both the prime and target” (Henson 2003). In other words, there is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical repetition enhancement because the activation of the prime is added to the one of the target (Schnyer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2002). In interference paradigms, the time interval (SOA) between distractor and target is per definition relatively short, which has several important consequences. First, hemodynamic responses can be specifically enhanced for linguistic stages Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical due to the intersection of distractor and word-processing stages as mentioned above (Abel et al. 2009a). The increase of activation due to parallel processing of distractor and target was termed “dual activation” in Abel et al. (2009a). A boost of activation occurs directly at overlapping word-processing stages and indirectly

at neighboring stages due to forward spreading of activation. Second, profound and potentially long-term neural changes as mechanism underlying response alterations almost can be presumed for priming (Henson 2003), but this explanation is implausible for interference. As shown for repeated picture naming, the strengthening of links between pictorial and lexical representation takes time to establish (at least 30s; van Turennout et al. 2000). Third, short SOAs (<250 msec) have been presumed to evoke automatic activation spreading to related representations, while greater SOAs are open to strategies (cf. Neely 1991). To sum, it remains unclear to which extent neural correlates of interference resemble neural priming effects and mirror dual activation, given the short SOAs for the former.

It is theoretically possible that the reduction in the observed r

It is theoretically possible that the reduction in the observed ratio reflects increased ATP

consumption in response to lipid infusion, rather than reduced production. The lack of change in PCr/ATP ratio with lipid infusion in the resting studies would suggest that the reduction observed with cognitive activity is more likely to be due to insufficient Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical production relative to demand. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter and activation of the nicotinic form of the receptor is associated with CAL-101 modulation of neural transmission and beneficial effects on higher brain functions including memory processes (Girod et al. 2000). It is therefore possible that nicotinic acid used in the control arm of the study may have been associated with effects on neuronal processing. However, any putative

effects on membrane potentials and transmission Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical processes would require energy and therefore an increased requirement for ATP. If ATP production were unable to meet the extra demand, it would be reflected in a reduced PCr/ATP ratio. However, in the control studies performed before and after nicotinic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acid, no differences were seen in PCr/ATP ratios, suggesting that neuronal energy production was sufficient. Nicotinic acid also serves as a precursor for the formation of NAD+ (Ross 1998), and hence this may also help to offset any increased energy requirement as a consequence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The PCr/ATP ratios were unaffected by lipid infusion or nicotinic acid administration in the absence of cognitive activity, implying that resting energetics were unaffected and therefore that resting energy uptake is not affected by insulin. In combination with the observed energetic impairment during Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cognitive stress, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that rapid increases in glucose uptake during neuronal activation

occur through insulin-mediated mechanisms. The Randle cycle provides an alternative explanation for lipid-induced reduction in glucose oxidation, whereby increased lipid Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical oxidation results in feedback inhibition of enzymes involved in glycolysis (Randle et al. 1963). This model, however, relates to studies performed in skeletal muscle, which has inherent metabolic flexibility and therefore is capable of using both lipid and glucose. While it is possible that a Randle cycle mechanism may exist in the brain, the metabolic inflexibility before of neuronal tissue would suggest that the findings in this study are more likely to be due to changes in insulin-mediated glucose uptake than substrate competition. In addition to insulin, there is increasing recognition that the hormone leptin may also play an important part in neuronal signaling and cognitive function (Paz-Filho et al. 2010), as well as having a role in homeostasis. Some of these effects are mediated through PI3-K signaling (Donato et al. 2010).

Correlates of white matter hyperintensities Despite the ubiqui

.. Correlates of white matter hyperintensities Despite the ubiquity of WMH among older adults,

they are a uniquely radiological phenomenon. That is, when examining grossly the brain regions underlying WMH, there is no obvious pigmentation abnormality. Our current understanding of the nature, clinical importance, and cognitive consequences of WMH has come from a number of careful clinicopathological correlates and observational studies among clinical and epidemiological samples. A prevailing view is that WMH Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are a surrogate marker of small-vessel vascular disease19 resulting from ischemic damage due to chronic hypoperfusion. White matter hyperintensities tend to develop in regions that are considered “watershed” areas, which extend up to 13 mm beyond the ventricular walls.20-22 Indeed, most of the major risk factors for ischemia have been shown to be associated with the severity of WMH distribution.23-27 Further evidence for an ischemic origin comes from postmortem pathological examination of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tissue that appears as WMH during life. Areas most vulnerable to development of WMH receive blood supply primarily from ventriculofugal vessels, which originate from the subependymal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical arteries.28,29 These vessels have relatively few anastomoses and are particularly vulnerable

to injurydue to systemic hypoperfusion.29-30 Clinico-pathological correlate studies have shown that smooth periventricular WMH are associated with subependymal gliosis and disruption of the ependymal lining, CP-690550 in vitro whereas deep white matter punctate WMH or irregularly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shaped periventricular WMH are associated with disruption in fibers secondary to ischemic/arteriosclerotic changes.31,32 In general, WMH are related to diminished pallor or rarefaction and gliosis33 and myelin or axonal loss.34 By combining structural neuroimaging data with measures of cerebral blood flow, as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL), we showed that areas appearing as WMH on FLAIR images had diminished blood flow relative to normal appearing white matter and grey matter.35 The finding complements recent observations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that the spatial frequency of WMH among

healthy older adults is greater in regions with lower normative perfusion values.36 We also showed that, among an epidemiological cohort of nondemented older adults, WMH were associated with chronological age and vascular risk factors37 Resminostat and were most severe among adults with the highest absolute blood pressure and blood pressure fluctuation over a 3-year period (Brickman et al, unpublished). These observations lend further support that diminished perfusion and perhaps compromised cerebral autoregulation increase the risk for WMH development. The role of white matter hyperintensities in cognitive aging Consistent observations of increasing WMH severity and variability with aging supports ongoing interest in their clinical or cognitive correlates (see ref 13).

One limitation of our

study is that we did not have an ac

One limitation of our

study is that we did not have an action execution condition to compare our results with previous studies. A direct comparison of action execution with action observation using a source level analysis of brain responses will significantly advance our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development of the perceptual-motor system. Acknowledgments We would like to thank J. Werker, L. Boyd and J. Garland for their support and mentorship in this project. This work is supported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive dementia. The cardinal pathologic features include accumulations of both extracellular Aβ peptide in neuritic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plaques (NPs) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). These two lesions form the basis of current diagnostic criteria of AD (CERAD, Braak), yet both have been demonstrated in cognitively normal (CN) elderly adults (Tomlinson et al. 1968; Crystal et al. 1988; Katzman et al. 1988; Braak and Braak 1991; Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Mirra et al. 1991; Mochizuki et al. 1996; Troncoso et al. 1996; Price and Morris 1999; Knopman et al. 2003). This state, which we have termed asymptomatic AD

(ASYMAD) (Riudavets et al. 2007; Iacono et al. 2008), and others have called preclinical AD (Schmitt et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2000), or high-pathology controls (Benzing et al. 1993), suggests that some individuals are resistant to the effects of AD pathology. Recent investigations of individuals with ASYMAD have begun to reveal possible underlying mechanisms responsible for this resilience. For example, ASYMAD subjects have neuronal hypertrophy in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (Riudavets et

al. 2007; Iacono et al. 2009a). Neuronal nuclear and nucleolar hypertrophy has also been demonstrated in the hippocampus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and primary visual cortex of these individuals (Iacono et al. 2008). The current Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study investigates differences in longitudinal changes in brain activity among groups of individuals who eventually follow divergent clinical and pathological trajectories. This study is unique in that cerebral blood flow (CBF) buy NSC 683864 positron emission tomography (15O-PET) old scans were obtained on average 10.0 (SD 3.6) years prior to death when all participants were CN. Thus, we are able to assess antemortem brain changes in individuals who have AD pathology years later at autopsy yet maintained normal cognition (ASYMAD) and compare them to those with AD pathology and cognitive impairment (CI) as well as those who remained CN and histologically normal. By examining changes in brain activity demonstrated by the PET imaging, we can assess both similarities and differences in premorbid brain function across the groups.

Fourth, Complete resection appears feasible Nevertheless, there i

Fourth, Complete resection appears feasible Nevertheless, there is also no consensus among thoracic surgical oncologists or sarcoma specialists as to what disease burden represents an unresectable case. There is general agreement that chemotherapy following metastasectomy is generally not recommended. Since our patient had too numerous lung metastasis in both lungs, she was neither a surgical candidate nor a candidate for RFA of pulmonary lesions. New understanding of molecular pathology in this area has helped to theorize about treatment options. Akt Mtor pathway activation plays a crucial

role in the development of leiomyosarcomas. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Upstream regulators or intrinsic components of this pathways were found to be overexpressed

in human leiomyosarcomas (23). In mutant mice with upregulation of this pathway, it was demonstrated the early development of leiomyosarcoma as well. Mice treated with Mtor inhibitior Everolimus had a deceleration in tumor progression. Combination of Mtor inhibitors with traditional chemotherapy such as gemcitabine had demonstrated stabilization of metastatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disease in humans Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (24). Phase II clinical trials are needed to further establish its role in the clinical setting. Conclusion Neuroendocrine tumors often present with metastatic disease at presentation. However this patient had a history of a second primary. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining tissue confirmation of metastases. Tissue confirmation of metastatic sarcoma to the lungs which had been essentially stable for 24 months, altered the management of the pancreatic neuroendocrine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumor in this patient.
The development in CH5424802 chemical structure endoscopy has been tremendous since the conceptof inspecting inside human’s gastrointestinal tractfirst introduced in 1806. Flexible video endoscope became available with the advances

in fiberoptics, image processing and technologies in CCD. In 1970s, the performance of sphincterotomy upon ERCP marked the start of the era of therapeutic endoscopy (1). The concept Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of en-bloc resection for early gastrointestinal cancers withendoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) adopted the principles of surgery and applied through endoscopy using innovative instruments (2,3)). Natural Orifices Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (N.O.T.E.S.) became the next logical step for the development of endoscopic check surgery (4). The concept of N.O.T.E.S. is to achieve surgical procedures through the natural orifices of human body without skin incisions. This revolutionary idea, however, cannot be applied to human immediately as the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of these procedures were not completely understand. Animal model became a very important means to establish the achievability of new endoscopic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (5). These in-vitro experiments, however, were limited by the use of large scale animals toaccommodate large diameter of an ordinary endoscope which is at least 9mm.