Fetal cardiac function was assessed by the left and right ventric

Fetal cardiac function was assessed by the left and right ventricular myocardial performance index, atrioventricular valve flow pattern, ductus venosus a-wave, and umbilical vein pulsations.\n\nRESULTS: Nomograms for the myocardial performance index were constructed. Fetal cardiac function was grossly

abnormal in recipient twins of TTTS when compared with control subjects (P < .001 for all indices) but normalized by 4 weeks postoperatively. The donor developed abnormal ductus venosus flow and tricuspid regurgitation postoperatively that regressed within 4 weeks.\n\nCONCLUSION: The cardiac dysfunction in the recipient twin of TTTS normalizes within 1 month after laser. The donor develops a transient impairment of cardiac function postoperatively.”
“We developed

SiO2-coated mechanically controllable break junctions for accurate tunneling current measurements HDAC activity assay in an ionic solution. By breaking the junction, we created dielectric-protected LY3039478 purchase Au nanoprobes with nanometer separation. We demonstrated that the insulator protection was capable to suppress the ionic contribution to the charge transport through the electrode gap, thereby enabled reliable characterizations of liquid-mediated exponential decay of the tunneling conductance in an electrolyte solution. From this, we found distinct roles of charge points such as molecular dipoles and ion species on the tunneling decay eFT-508 research buy constant, which was attributed to local structures of molecules and ions in the confined space between the sensing electrodes. The device described here would provide improved biomolecular sensing capability of tunneling current sensors. (C) 2014

AIP Publishing LLC.”
“A recent report has indicated that proteins and genes of simian virus 5 (SV5) are detected in a human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line, which is widely provided for oncology, immunology, and microbiology research. However, the production of infective virions has not been determined in this cell line. In this study, the morphology and infectivity of the virus particles of the AGS cell line were studied by light and electron microscopy and virus transmission assay. The virus particles were approximately 176.0 +/- 41.1 nm in diameter. The particles possessed projections 8-12 nm long on the surface and contained a nucleocapsid determined to be 13-18 nm in width and less than 1,000 nm in length. The virus was transmissible to the Vero cell line, induced multinuclear giant cell formation, and reproduced the same shape of antigenic virions. In this study, the persistently infected virus in the AGS cell line was determined to be infective and form reproducible virions, and a new morphological feature of SV5 was determined.

Total densities were significantly higher in 1996-2002 compared t

Total densities were significantly higher in 1996-2002 compared to 1989-1994, a change coincident with a spectacular rise in the density of the holothurian Amperima. GDC-0994 price However, total densities exhibited no significant relation to seasons or any significant correlation with modelled organic matter flux, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, Amperima densities, or megafaunal assemblage composition. Over the same period,

species richness and diversity measures decreased and dominance increased, although not significantly. Multivariate analyses revealed three assemblages represented by samples collected in 1989-1994, 1996-July 1997 and October 1997-October 2002. These reflected temporal changes in the densities of higher taxa and species. Trochamminaceans,

notably a small undescribed species, increased from 5-9% (1989-1994) Selleckchem Quisinostat to 29-40% (1996-2002) of the assemblage with a corresponding rise in absolute abundance. Species of Hormosinacea and Lagenammina also tended to increase in density from 1996/1997 onwards. Rotaliids, dominated by Alabaminella weddellensis and Epistominella exigua, showed a bimodal distribution over time with peak densities in May 1991 (32%) and September 1998 (28%) and lowest densities in 1996-1997. Responses by these species to seasonal phytodetritus inputs probably explain the relative abundance of E. exigua, and to a lesser extent A. weddellensis, in 1989 and 1991 when phytodetritus was present. A qualitative change in the phytodetrital food, repackaging of food by megafauna, CRT0066101 increased megafaunal disturbance of the surficial sediment, or a combination of these factors, are possible explanations for the dominance of trochamminaceans from 1996 onwards.

The miliolid Quinqueloculina sp. was virtually absent in multicore samples (0-1 cm, > 63-mu m fraction) from 1989-1994, peaked in September 1996 (22%) when degraded phytodetritus was present on core surfaces, was less common in March 1997, and thereafter was relatively uncommon. However, horizontally sliced box-core samples (0-5 cm, >250-mu m fraction) revealed that large specimens were more abundant in March 1997, and also were concentrated in deeper sediment layers, than in September 1996. We suggest that Quinqueloculina sp. migrated to the sediment surface in response to a 1996 flux event, grew and reproduced, before migrating back into deeper layers as the phytodetrital food became exhausted. Overall, the abyssal time-series revealed decadal-scale changes among shallow-infaunal foraminifera, more or less coincident with changes in the megafauna, as well as indications of shorter-term events related to seasonally-pulsed phytodetrital inputs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This study assesses the influence of high-dose C1-esterase inhibi

This study assesses the influence of high-dose C1-esterase inhibitor administration on systemic inflammatory response and survival in patients with sepsis.\n\nDesign: Open-label randomized controlled study.\n\nSetting: Surgical and medical intensive care units of nine university and city hospitals.\n\nPatients: Sixty-one patients with sepsis.\n\nInterventions: Patients were randomized to receive either 12,000 U selleck of C1-esterase inhibitor infusions in addition to conventional treatment or conventional treatment only (n = 41 C1-esterase inhibitor, 20 controls). Blood samples for measurement of C1-esterase inhibitor, complement components C3 and C4, and C-reactive protein concentrations

were drawn on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 28.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Quartile analysis of C1-esterase inhibitor activity in sepsis subjects revealed that the lowest quartile subgroup had similar activity levels (0.7-1.2 U/L), when compared to healthy volunteers (p > .05). These normal-level C1-esterase inhibitor sepsis patients nevertheless displayed increased C-reactive protein (p = .04) production and higher

likelihoods of a more severe sepsis (p = .001). Overall, infusion of C1-esterase inhibitor increased C1-esterase inhibitor (p < .005 vs. control on days 2, 3, and 5) functional activity, resulted in higher C3 levels (p < .05 vs. control on days 2 and 3), followed DMH1 by decreased C-reactive protein (p < .05 vs. control 3-Methyladenine order on days 3 and 10). Simultaneously, C1-esterase inhibitor infusion in sepsis patients was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (12% vs. 45% in control, p = .008) as well as sepsis-related mortality (8% vs. 45% in control, p = .001) assessed over 28 days. The highest absolute reduction risk of 70% was achieved in sepsis patients with Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores >27.\n\nConclusion: In the present study, patients in the lowest quartile of C1-esterase inhibitor activity in combination with high C-reactive protein demonstrated a higher risk of developing severe sepsis. In general,

high-dose C1-esterase inhibitor infusion down-regulated the systemic inflammatory response and was associated with improved survival rates in sepsis patients, which could have important treatment and survival implications for individuals with C1-esterase inhibitor functional deficiency. (Crit Care Med 2012; 40:770-777)”
“The response criteria for complete remission (CR) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are currently based on morphology and blood cell counts. However, these criteria are insufficient to establish a diagnosis in cases with poor quality bone marrow (BM) samples demonstrating a loss of cellular morphology. We investigated whether the sera of patients contained biomarkers that indicate disease response status.

Expression of KITENIN was significantly associated with lymphovas

Expression of KITENIN was significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, NCT-501 chemical structure lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and poor survival. These results indicate that KITENIN is associated with human colorectal cancer progression including invasion and metastasis.”
“Background and purpose: Distant metastases are the dominant mode of failure after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary

study objective was to evaluate if the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on pre-treatment FDG-PET/CT predicted clinical outcomes. Secondary objectives were to correlate 3-month post-SBRT SUVmax and change in SUVmax with outcomes.\n\nMaterials and methods: Consecutive patients with medically inoperable early-stage NSCLG and an FDG-PET/CT scan before (n = 82) and 3 months after (n = 62) SBRT.\n\nResults: Median follow up was 2 years. On univariate analysis baseline SUVmax predicted for distant failure (p = 0.0096), relapse free survival (RFS) (p = 0.037) and local failure (p = 0.044). On multivariate analysis baseline SUVmax predicted for RFS (p = 0.037). Baseline SUVmax of above

5 was the most statistically significant cut off point for predicting distant failure (p = 0.0002). Baseline click here SUVmax >= 4.75 (median) was correlated with a higher risk of distant failure (p = 0.012) and poorer RFS (p = 0.04). Patients with a post-SBRT SUVmax >= 2 and a reduction of <2.55 had a significantly higher rate of distant failure.\n\nConclusions: Pre-SBRT SUVmax on FDG-PET/CT correlated most strongly with distant failure. A cut off of >= 5 was the most significant. Post-SBRT SUVmax >= 2 and this website a reduction of <2.55 were associated with a higher risk of distant failure. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology

104 (2012) 62-66″
“Primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma (PPL) is an extremely rare malignant tumor. In the case presented here, a 52-year-old Chinese female with a lung mass underwent a right upper-middle lobectomy with pulmonary artery sleeve resection and reconstruction, and was thereafter diagnosed with PPL. After 28 months, the patient was well and without local recurrence or distant metastasis. Copyright (C) 2013 Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved.”
“This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 +/- 15.6 mm and 52.9 +/- 12.4 mm, respectively), an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation.

The accusation

The accusation check details of repressing results of LTPP RCTs is unsustainable. All in all, the meta-analysis by Leichsenring and Rabung was done accurately, and the results were controlled for by separate analyses of single subgroups. Therefore, their study

does provide evidence of the effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for patients with complex mental disorders.”
“Ujumqin sheep are susceptible to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, which reduces productivity and total meat yield in sheep. Thus, the effects of green tea polyphenol (GTP) supplements (0, 2, 4, or 6 g of GTP/kg feed) on dietary nutrient digestibility and meat quality in lambs infected with H. contortus were examined; control lambs were SIS3 manufacturer not infected. H. contortus infections did

not affect digestion but the apparent digestibilities of nutrients were decreased by dietary 2 g of GTP/kg feed supplementation. There was an interaction between treatment and sampling time on plasma total protein, urea nitrogen, and amino acid concentrations. The antioxidant activity and meat color of INFGTPO lambs decreased. In conclusion, H. contortus infections in lambs decreased meat quality, but appropriate levels of dietary GTP supplementation diminished these negative effects though lower dose of GTP supplement showed negative effects on digestion. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Limbal stem cell deficiency is a blinding disease which affects the cornea at the front of the eye. The definitive cure involves replacing the corneal epithelial Blebbistatin clinical trial (limbal) stem cells, for example by transplanting cultured limbal epithelial cells. One method of performing cultures is to grow a sheet of epithelial cells from a limbal explant on human amniotic membrane. The growth of limbal tissue can be variable. The aim of this study is to investigate how different donor and culture factors influence the ex vivo growth of cadaveric limbal explants. Limbal explant cultures were established from 10 different cadaveric

organ cultured corneo-scleral discs. The growth rate and the time taken for growth to be established were determined. Statistical analysis was performed to assess correlation between these factors and donor variables including donor age, sex, time from donor death to enucleation, time from enucleation to organ culture storage and duration in organ culture. Growth curves consistently showed a lag phase followed by a steeper linear growth phase. Donor age, time between death and enucleation, and time between enucleation and organ culture were not correlated to the lag time or the growth rate. Time in organ culture had a significant correlation with the duration of lag time (P?=?0.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of all computerize

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of all computerized medical records of hypertensive patients in Health Area 6 of Madrid (Spain). Of 63 167 hypertensive patients, we selected 48 744 with prescription of antihypertensive medication; of these, we selected those who met the American Heart Association criteria for resistant hypertension. Results: A total of 6292 patients had resistant hypertension, representing 9.9% of all hypertensive patients and 12.9% of those treated. A total of 5.5% were smaller than 50 years (8.5% men and 3.2% women) and 24.7% were bigger than 80 years (15.8% men and 31.4% women) (P smaller than .001). In patients smaller than

50 years, resistant hypertension was associated with male sex (odds ratio female/male = 0.006; GSK690693 cost 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.042; P smaller than .001), systolic blood pressure, obesity, stroke, and chronic kidney disease (P smaller than .001). In those bigger than 80 years, resistant hypertension was associated with female sex (odds ratio female/male = 1.27;

95% Z-VAD-FMK mw confidence interval, 1.08-1,10; P = .004), systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation (P smaller than .001). More than 50% of patients bigger than 80 years with resistant hypertension had cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: One in 4 patients with resistant hypertension is bigger than 80 years. Resistant hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease, age smaller than 50 years in men and age bigger than 80 years in women. There is a high find more proportion of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with resistant hypertension. (C) 2013 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“This study was designed to examine the mechanism of heart rate (HR)

responses elicited by the stimulation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Experiments were done in urethane-anesthetized, barodenervated, adult, male Wistar rats. Chemical stimulation of the PVN by unilateral microinjections of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicited increases in HR which were attenuated by bilateral vagotomy. PVN-induced tachycardia was also attenuated by the blockade of the spinal ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLURs) which was accomplished by intrathecal injections at T9-T10 or direct application at T1-T4 of iGLUR antagonists. The blockade of spinal iGLURs combined with bilateral vagotomy completely blocked PVN-induced tachycardia. Blockade of GABA receptors in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) also attenuated the PVN-induced tachycardia. Complete blockade of PVN-induced tachycardia was also observed after the blockade of iGLURs in both the spinal cord and mNTS. Combination of the blockade of mNTS GABA receptors and spinal iGLURs also abolished PVN-induced tachycardia. PVN-induced tachycardia was not altered.

Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geoth

Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geothermal) seems likely in some marine species, climate warming predictions

for marine ectotherms are largely based on adaptation to climatically relevant heat sources (air or surface sea water temperature). Here, we show that non-climatic solar heating underlies thermal resistance adaptation in a rocky-eulittoral-fringe snail. Comparisons of the maximum temperatures of the air, the snail’s body and the rock selleck screening library substratum with solar irradiance and physiological performance show that the highest body temperature is primarily controlled by solar heating and re-radiation, and that the snail’s upper lethal temperature exceeds the highest climatically relevant regional air temperature by approximately 22 degrees C. Non-climatic thermal adaptation probably features widely among marine and terrestrial ectotherms and because it could enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature, it deserves more consideration in general and for inclusion into climate warming models.”
“Case studies are based on actual medical negligence claims or medicolegal referrals; however

certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved.\n\nThis article discusses a Medical Board complaint involving an allegation of failure to use an interpreter, KU-57788 cell line resulting in the death of a patient, aged 35 years.”
“Purposes: The intercavernous sinuses (ICSs) connect both sides of the cavernous sinus. Knowledge of the ICSs is useful when employing the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Although there were some studies concerning the anatomy of ICSs using cadavers, there is no well-recognized method of the radiological evaluation

of the ICSs. Therefore, we evaluate the ICSs using computed tomography digital subtraction venography https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html (CT-DSV) in the cases of unruptured aneurysm that had the normal sellae anatomy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 97 cases of unruptured cerebral aneurysm that had normal parasellar and sellar anatomy except for the aneurysms. The analysis was performed using the multi-planar reconstruction images obtained by CT-DSV in these cases. Results: The anterior ICS (AICS), inferior ICS (IICS) and posterior ICS (PICS) were detected in 51 cases (52.6%), 28 cases (28.9%) and 76 cases (78.4%) respectively. In the cases older than 51 years old, the AICS was detected significantly less often than in those younger than 50 years old. Conclusions: The CT-DSV images directly reflected the blood flow. Most of the past research on the ICSs was obtained using cadavers, which could therefore not difectly assess the normal human blood flow. The present study showed the usefulness of CT-DSV for evaluating the ICSs and to understand the normal anatomy of the ICSs. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

japonica, respectively; this suggests that they are useful marker

japonica, respectively; this suggests that they are useful markers LY2090314 research buy for closely related species.”
“Background: The studies on protein folding/unfolding indicate that the native state topology is an important determinant of protein folding mechanism. The folding/unfolding behaviors of proteins which have similar topologies have been studied under Cartesian space and the results indicate that some proteins share the similar folding/unfolding characters.\n\nResults: We construct physical property space with twelve different physical properties. By studying the unfolding process of the protein G and protein L under the property space, we find that the two proteins have

the similar unfolding pathways that can be divided into three types and the one which with the umbrella-shape represents the preferred pathway. Moreover, the unfolding simulation time of the two proteins is different and protein L unfolding faster than protein G. Additionally, the distributing area of unfolded state ensemble of protein L is larger than that of protein G.\n\nConclusion: Under the physical property space, the protein G and protein L have the similar folding/unfolding behaviors, which agree with the previous results obtained from the studies under Cartesian coordinate space. At the same time, some different unfolding

properties can be detected easily, which can not be analyzed under Cartesian coordinate space.”
“Aims The IPI-145 Angiogenesis inhibitor objective of this retrospective analysis of blood glucose values at a week-long residential summer camp for children with Type1 diabetes was to provide experiential data to reinforce current summer camp guidelines and to determine if specific interventions implemented between 2009 and 2010 were effective in lowering average blood glucose among our campers without increasing risk of hypoglycaemia. Methods Blood glucose records were obtained from a random selection of children who attended

six 1-week camp sessions, three each in 2009 and 2010. Five values per day: pre-meal breakfast, lunch and dinner, pre-evening snack and midnight values were analysed. Results A total of 13267 blood glucose values were included. There were no severe hypoglycaemic episodes, seizures or need for full-dose glucagon or intravenous glucose in either year. Mean blood glucose was significantly ACY-738 purchase lower in 2010 compared with 2009 (9.22 vs. 10.06mmol/l, P<0.001). Older age and camp year were associated with lower mean blood glucose, even when controlling for gender and duration of diabetes. Conclusions This analysis is the largest so far conducted at a residential diabetes camp. Mean blood glucose levels were lower than other published studies. Although we cannot attribute a cause-and-effect relationship between our interventions and the improvement in blood glucose between 2009 and 2010, the use of pre-meal insulin bolus doses, low glycaemic meals and highlighting blood glucose levels in logs before being reviewed by endocrinologists are strongly encouraged.

The detection result could be either qualitatively resolved with

The detection result could be either qualitatively resolved with naked eye or quantitatively analyzed with the assistance of a digital

camera. In the qualitative mode, the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.25 ng/mL. In the quantitative mode, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) was determined to be 0.45 ng/mL and the LOD can reach an ultralow level of 0.03 ng/mL, which is similar to 100 times lower than that of the conventional colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay. Potential application of the established method was demonstrated by analyzing representative cow milk samples.”
“In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging learn more (fMRI) study, where we investigated the neural correlates of esthetic experience, we found the observing canonical sculptures, relative to sculptures whose proportions had been modified, produced the activation of a network that included the lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus, prefrontal areas, and, most interestingly, the right anterior insula. We interpreted this latter activation as the neural signature

underpinning GS-9973 price hedonic response during esthetic experience. With the aim of exploring whether this specific hedonic response is also present during the observation of non-art biological stimuli, in the present fMRI study we compared the activations associated with viewing masterpieces of classical sculpture with those produced by the observation of pictures of young athletes. The two stimulus-categories were matched on various factors, including body postures, proportion, and expressed dynamism. The stimuli were presented in two conditions: observation and esthetic judgment. The two stimulus-categories produced a rather similar global activation pattern. Direct comparisons between sculpture and real-body images revealed, however, relevant differences, among which the activation of right antero-dorsal insula during sculptures viewing only. Along with our previous data, this finding suggests that the

hedonic state associated with activation of right dorsal anterior insula underpins esthetic experience Autophagy inhibitors library for artworks.”
“The present study was designed to study the effect of different transplanting methods in comparison with the farmer’s conventional transplanting methods at farmer’s field. Experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated thrice having a net plot size of 30 m x 40 m. The studies were carried out consecutively for three years during kharif season 2003, 2004 and 2005. For this study fifteen(15) locations viz; Sheikhupura (Mallian Kalan), Nankana Sahib (Warburten), Lahore (Burki), Wazirabad (Manzoorbad), Wazirabad (Rakh Bharokae), Kamonke (Ramey Farm), Noshehra Virkan, Daska, Pindi Bhattian (Sokhakea), Hafizabad (Ahmadpur Chatha), Pasroor (Poorib Klair), Gujranwala (Batala farm), Norowal (Burj).

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Heterozygous coding mutations in the INS gene that encodes preproinsulin were recently shown to be an important cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. These dominantly acting mutations prevent normal folding of proinsulin, which leads to beta-cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. We now report 10 different recessive INS mutations in 15 probands BAY 57-1293 with neonatal diabetes. Functional studies showed

that recessive mutations resulted in diabetes because of decreased insulin biosynthesis through distinct mechanisms, including gene deletion, lack of the translation initiation signal, and altered mRNA stability because of the disruption of a polyadenylation signal. A subset of recessive mutations caused abnormal INS transcription,

including the deletion of the C1 and E1 cis regulatory elements, or three different single base-pair substitutions in a CC dinucleotide sequence located between E1 and A1 elements. In keeping with click here an earlier and more severe beta-cell defect, patients with recessive INS mutations had a lower birth weight (-3.2 SD score vs.-2.0 SD score) and were diagnosed earlier (median 1 week vs. 10 weeks) compared to those with dominant INS mutations. Mutations in the insulin gene can therefore result in neonatal diabetes as a result of two contrasting pathogenic mechanisms. Moreover, the recessively inherited mutations provide a genetic demonstration of the essential role of multiple sequence

elements that regulate the biosynthesis of insulin in man.”
“A combination of analytical techniques capable of elemental and microstructural characterisation was used for the identification of ancient gilding technology and bronze metallurgy. EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM-EDS analysis and metallographic examinations were applied in the study of artefacts dating to the end of the second millennium BC from Crasto de So Romo in Central Portugal. Results report to the finding of an exceptional gilded copper nail among bronze GS-9973 cost artefacts with 9 wt.% to15 wt.% tin and minute other metallic impurities. Additionally, analysis of a crucible fragment points out for bronze production at the archaeological site. EDXRF and micro-EDXRF analysis made on the copper nail showed that it was gilded only on the front side of the head, and that the gold layer has been lost in the most exposed areas. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the gold layer has 5-8 A mu m in thickness and is covered with a thick corrosion layer. The gilding technique is discussed based on the gold layer composition and gold/copper substrate interface. So far, this object seems to be the first diffusion gilded artefact identified in the Portuguese territory dated to Late Bronze Age.