An increase in relative maternal liver weight and elevated expres

An increase in relative maternal liver weight and elevated expression of PPAR alpha target genes in maternal and fetal livers on GD18 were observed, indicative of PPAR alpha-dependent changes in both the maternal and fetal compartments. However, no defects in postnatal development were observed by either clofibrate or Wy-14,643 in either genotype by PND20. These SYN-117 mouse results demonstrate that relatively low level activation of PPAR alpha by clofibrate or Wy-14,643 during prenatal

development does not cause postnatal lethality. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This work presents a physics based circuit model for calculating the total energy dissipated into neutral species for nanosecond pulsed direct current (DC) dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas. Based on experimental observations, it is assumed that the nanosecond pulsed DBD’s which

have been proposed for aerodynamic flow control can be approximated by two independent regions of homogeneous electric field. An equivalent circuit model is developed for both homogeneous regions based on a combination of a resistor, capacitors, and a zener diode. Instead of fitting the resistance to an experimental data set, a formula is established for approximating the resistance by modeling plasmas as a conductor with DC voltage applied to it. Various assumptions are then applied to the governing Boltzmann equation to approximate electrical conductivity values for weakly ionized plasmas. The developed model is

then validated with experimental data of the total power dissipated by plasmas. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Background and Purpose: Obese patients undergoing surgical procedures are at increased risk ARO 002 for perioperative morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association with body mass index (BMI), clinicopathologic features, and perioperative outcomes and complications in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN).\n\nPatients and Methods: Medical records of 283 patients who underwent RPN between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed from an Institutional Review Board approved database. We analyzed the association of perioperative outcomes and complications of the surgery with BMI and clinicopathologic features using analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test and chi-square-test. Eventually, independent factors associated with perioperative outcomes and complications were studied using univariate and multivariate regression analysis.\n\nResults: Perioperative outcomes including estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay (LOS) and operative time (OT) were significantly associated with BMI (P = 0.002, P = 0.009 and P = 0.002, respectively). Warm ischemia time (WIT), perioperative complications, and change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and after surgery were not associated with BMI (P = 0.459, P = 0.86 and P = 0.

The measured optical transmission of the heterojunction is 70-80%

The measured optical transmission of the heterojunction is 70-80% in

the infrared and visible regions. Absorption occurs in the UV region, which corresponds to the band gaps of LNO and In-MZO, suggesting that these heterojunctions formed by transparent LNO and In-MZO films could be used Compound C as UV detectors and transparent electronic devices. (C) 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Regulated protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical to eukaryotic protein homeostasis. Often vital to degradation of protein substrates is their disassembly, unfolding, or extraction from membranes. These GW4869 nmr processes are catalyzed by the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48 (also known as p97). Here we characterize the Cuz1 protein (Cdc48-associated UBL/zinc finger protein-1), encoded by a previously uncharacterized arsenite-inducible gene in budding yeast. Cuz1, like its human ortholog ZFAND1, has both an AN1-type zinc finger (Zf_AN1) and a divergent ubiquitin-like domain (UBL). We show that Cuz1 modulates Cdc48 function in the UPS. The two proteins directly interact, and the Cuz1 UBL, but not Zf_AN1, is necessary for binding to the Cdc48 N-terminal domain. Cuz1 also associates, albeit more weakly, with the proteasome,

and the UBL is dispensable for this interaction. Cuz1-proteasome interaction is strongly enhanced by exposure of cells to the environmental toxin arsenite, and in a proteasome mutant, loss of Cuz1 enhances arsenite sensitivity. Whereas loss of Cuz1 alone causes only minor UPS degradation defects, its combination with mutations in the Cdc48(Npl4-Ufd1) complex leads to much greater impairment. Cuz1 helps limit the accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates on both the proteasome and Cdc48, suggesting a possible role in the transfer of ubiquitylated substrates from Cdc48 to the proteasome or in their release from these complexes.”
“Enzymes play important roles

in catalysing biochemical transaction paths, acting as logical machines through the morphology of the processes. A key challenge in elucidating the nature of these systems, and LDK378 solubility dmso for engineering manufacturing methods inspired by biochemical reactions, is to attain a comprehensive understanding of the stereochemical ground rules of enzymatic reactions. Here, we present a model of catalysis that can be performed magnetically by centimetre-sized passive floating units. The designed system, which is equipped with permanent magnets only, passively obeys the local causalities imposed by magnetic interactions, albeit it shows a spatial behaviour and an energy profile analogous to those of biochemical enzymes.

“Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be a single syste

“Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be a single system or multi-system disease. Both disease types can be associated with multi-focal bone lesions, but their bone involvement patterns have not been compared systematically. Of

the new pediatric LCH cases enrolled into the JLSG-02 study during 2002-2007, 67 cases of single system multifocal bone (SMFB) LCH and 97 cases of multi-system bone (MSB) LCH were analyzed to determine if the bone involvement patterns differ in these two types, and whether these differences correlate with outcome. Statistical analysis was performed with Dinaciclib mw Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher’s exact test, and other measures. Onset ages were higher for SMFB (P < 0.001), but the two types did not differ in the number

of bone lesions per patient. The skull was most frequently affected in both types, followed by the spine. Lesions in the temporal bone (P = 0.002), ear-petrous bone (P < 0.001), orbita (P = 0.003), and zygomatic bone (P = 0.016) were significantly more common in Pevonedistat datasheet MSB. The two types did not differ in response to treatment, but MSB was associated with a significantly higher incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) (P < 0.001). Novel measures are required in preventing the development of DI in MSB-type LCH patients with “risk” bone lesions.”
“Background: DnaJ proteins participate in many metabolic pathways through dynamic interactions with various components of these processes. The role of three small chloroplast-targeted DnaJ proteins, AtJ8 (At1 g80920), AtJ11 (At4 g36040) and AtJ20 (At4 g13830), was investigated here using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Photochemical efficiency, capacity of CO(2) assimilation, stabilization of Photosystem (PS) II dimers and supercomplexes under high light illumination, energy distribution between PSI and PSII and phosphorylation of PSII-LHCII proteins, global

gene expression profiles and oxidative stress responses of these DnaJ mutants were analyzed.\n\nResults: Knockout of one of these proteins caused a series of events including a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency, destabilization of PSII complexes and loss of control for balancing the redox reactions in chloroplasts. Data obtained with DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that the GSK1210151A cell line lack of one of these DnaJ proteins triggers a global stress response and therefore confers the plants greater tolerance to oxidative stress induced by high light or methyl viologen treatments. Expression of a set of genes encoding enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as a number of stress-related transcription factors behaved in the mutants at growth light similarly to that when wild-type (WT) plants were transferred to high light. Also a set of genes related to redox regulation were upregulated in the mutants. On the other hand, although the three DnaJ proteins reside in chloroplasts, the expression of most genes encoding thylakoid membrane proteins was not changed in the mutants.

3%) were positive for IAV by RT-PCR and seven out of the eleven w

3%) were positive for IAV by RT-PCR and seven out of the eleven were also positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 by gRRT-PCR. Chronic diffuse bronchopneumonia was observed in all samples and IHC analysis was negative for influenza A antigen.

CAL-101 purchase Full genes segments of H1N2 IAV were sequenced using Illumina’s genome analyzer platform (MiSeq). The genomic analysis revealed that the HA and NA genes clustered with IAVs of the human lineage and the six internal genes were derived from the H1N1pdm09 IAV. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus infection in captive wild boars in Brazil and indicates the need to monitor IAV evolution in Suidae populations. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. The purpose of this study was LY3039478 cell line two-fold: first, to develop a Korean version of the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ-K) and evaluate its reliability and reproducibility and second, to examine the diagnostic efficacy of GCLQ-K in predicting lymphedema in gynecologic cancer survivors. Methods. We designed a case-control study, and the GCLQ-K was completed by 33 gynecologic cancer survivors with lymphedema and 34 gynecologic cancer survivors without lymphedema. A follow-up GCLQ-K was completed 3 weeks after the baseline questionnaire. Results.

The GCLQ-K showed high reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83 and high reproducibility with an intraclass correlation of 0.96. Of the 7 symptom clusters, 6 identified patients with lymphedema with statistical

significance; identification of lymphedema using the physical functioning and infection-related symptom clusters did not reach significance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to distinguish patients with and without lymphedema was 0.868 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.779-0.956). Following the exclusion of the physical functioning and infection-related AZD7762 symptom clusters, which showed poor prediction value for lymphedema, the AUC of the GCLQ-K total score further improved to 0.922 (95% CI, 0.864-0.981). Conclusion. The GCLQ-K was successfully developed with minimal modifications to adapt the original GCLQ to the Korean culture and showed high internal consistency and reproducibility. Moreover, gynecologic cancer survivors with and without lymphedema could be satisfactorily distinguished using the GCLQ-K. Thus, GCLQ-K was proven to be a reliable tool, capable of identifying lymphedema in Korean gynecological cancer survivors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Adrenal diseases, including Cushing syndrome (CS), primary aldosteronism (PA), pheochromocytoma, and adrenocortical carcinoma, are uncommon in pregnancy; a high degree of clinical suspicion must exist. Physiologic changes to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in a normal pregnancy result in increased cortisol, renin, and aldosterone levels, making the diagnosis of CS and PA in pregnancy challenging.

J Nutr 139: 1833-1838, 2009 “

J. Nutr. 139: 1833-1838, 2009.”
“More than 200 people in China suffered illness with symptoms of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following consumption of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The event occurred in the cities of Ningbo and Ningde near the East China Sea in May, 2011. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that high concentrations of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and their acyl esters were responsible for the incidents. The total concentration was more than 40 times the EU regulatory limit of 160 mu g OA eq./kg. Pectentoxin-2 and its seco-acids were also present in the mussels. Additionally, yessotoxins were found to be responsible for positive

mouse bioassay results on scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and oyster (Crassostrea talienwhanensis) samples collected from the North Yellow Sea in June, 2010. This work shows that high levels of lipophilic toxins LY3023414 chemical structure can accumulate in shellfish from the Chinese coast and it emphasises that adequate chemical analytical methodologies are needed for monitoring purposes. Further research is required to broaden the knowledge on the occurrence of lipophilic toxins in

Chinese shellfish. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel and sensitive anion receptor 3, bearing Schiff base structure, nitrophenyl azobenzol and carboxyl groups, was developed and characterized as a single chemosensor for the recognition of HSO4- anion. The different responses of UV-vis spectra and color changes of 3 could be applied to the recognition for HSO4- over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4- and CIO4- by the naked eye. Furthermore, the anion binding interaction of receptor-anion was also studied using UV-vis and H-1 NMR titration which revealed that 3 displayed a remarkable binding ability for the HSO4- with an association constant K-a = 6.59 x 10(4) M-1. And the detection limitation of HSO4- with the receptor 3 was 2.0

x 10(-6) mol L-1 in aqueous solution. Most importantly, the qualitative detection of HSO4- using receptor 3 was attempted with test kit which was made from receptor 3. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND Frequent idiopathic premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) can result in a reversible form of cardiomyopathy. In this study, the determinants of PVC-induced left learn more ventricular (LV) dysfunction were assessed.\n\nMETHODS The subjects of this study were 241 consecutive patients (115 men [48%], mean age 48 +/- 14 years) referred for ablation of frequent PVCs. One hundred eighty patients (75%) experienced palpitations and 61 (25%) did not. The PVC burden was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring, and echocardiograms were performed to assess LV function. An LV ejection fraction of <50% was considered abnormal.\n\nRESULTS LV ejection fraction (mean 0.36 +/- 0.09) was present in 76 of 241 patients (32%).

Sequences were deposited in and compared with those already in Ge

Sequences were deposited in and compared with those already in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, using amino acid and nucleotide sequences based on the hemagglutinin

gene, demonstrated that these strains of CDV are closely related to those from the Europe 1 lineage of CDV, with marked differences from other recognized geographical clusters of CDV isolates and from the vaccine strains. The strains of CDV from this region of southern Brazil appear to be related to those from Europe 1.”
“The Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) is one of the least widely used tests to assess performance validity on tests of neurocognitive functioning, but a meta-analysis has suggested that it is one of the more effective validity tests. The current research examined cutoffs MK-2206 for several different scores derived from the VSVT in an active duty military sample composed primarily of mild TBI patients. The results are consistent with previous research and provide additional evidence that much higher cutoffs scores than originally recommended for the VSVT by the developers based on binomial probability theory can produce excellent classification and diagnostic statistics when a psychometrically defined non-malingering

group is compared with two psychometrically defined malingering groups (Probable and Probable to Definite). The utility of the difference score between the Easy and Hard Items is supported by this research. The results also indicate that reaction times have some utility, SBE-β-CD cost but they are constrained

by a lack of sensitivity.”
“Objective. To evaluate whether computer-assisted, interactive digital analysis of knee radiographs enables identification of different quantitative features of joint damage, and to evaluate the relationship of such features with each other and with clinical characteristics during 5-year followup in early osteoarthritis (OA).\n\nMethods. Knee selleck radiographs from the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) study, including 1002 individuals with early OA complaints, were evaluated for different measures with knee images digital analysis (KIDA). To aid definition of different radiographic features of OA, principal component analysis of KIDA was used. Features were correlated (Pearson) to each other, evaluated for changes over time, and related to clinical outcome (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for pain and function) using baseline, 2-year, and 5-year followup data.\n\nResults. The identified radiographic features were joint space width (JSW: minimum, medial, lateral), varus angle, osteophyte area, eminence height, and bone density. The features progressed in severity at different times during followup: early (medial JSW, osteophyte area), late (minimum and lateral JSW, eminence height), and both early and late (varus angle, bone density). Correlations between different radiographic features varied between timepoints.

One month and three months after implantation, samples were harve

One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1,3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human

mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Data from neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies indicate hemispheric asymmetries in processing object’s global form versus local parts. However the attentional mechanisms subtending visual selection of different levels of information are poorly understood. The classical left hemisphere/local-right

hemisphere/global dichotomy has been see more recently challenged by studies linking the asymmetry of activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) with the relative salience of the stimulus rather than with the local/global level. The present Tariquidar research buy study aimed to assess hemispheric asymmetry in local global and salience-based selection in hierarchical stimuli by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To this end, tDCS has been applied to the PPC of both the hemispheres. Our data revealed that tDCS did affect the selection of the target on the basis of its relative salience in a manner that depended on the tDCS polarity applied to the two hemispheres. This result is in line with previous findings that the left PPC is critically involved in attention for low-salience stimuli in the presence of high-salience distractor information, while right PPC is involved in attending to more salient stimuli. Hemispheric asymmetries were also found in local/global selection. Overall the results suggest that neural activation

in the PPC VE-821 cost is related to both the salience and the level of stimulus representations mediating responses to hierarchical stimuli. The comparison of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 in local/global-based selection suggests that the effect of stimulation could be completely opposite depending on subtle differences in demands of attentional control (sustained attention vs task switching). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The myxozoan Kudoa inornata is a common parasite of the skeletal muscles of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of plasmodia of K. inornata within individual C. nebulosus in order to identify muscle areas of least variation where future sampling would result in easily obtainable, repeatable, and dependable measurement of infection status. Fish were captured in the wild during June 2011. Muscle samples from 9 body areas were collected, in replicate, from each of 15 specimens of C.

The gender groups did not differ in absolute measures of colour o

The gender groups did not differ in absolute measures of colour or in the rate at which it deteriorated on display. However, the rate of colour deterioration was more

rapid than other meats such as beef, as has been demonstrated elsewhere. The average ultimate pH and water-holding capacity were similar for the two groups. Venison from hinds contained this website more coenzyme Q(10), taurine, anserine, carnosine, and vitamin E. Group differences in fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat appeared to be mainly due to levels of fatness, which was greater for the hind group. (C) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Epidemiologic studies have found that obesity is associated with malignant grade and mortality in prostate cancer. see more Several adipokines have been implicated as putative mediating factors between obesity and prostate cancer. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a member

of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein multigene family, was recently identified as a novel adipokine. Although FABP4 is released from adipocytes and mean circulating concentrations of FABP4 are linked with obesity, effects of exogenous FABP4 on prostate cancer progression are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous FABP4 on human NVP-BSK805 prostate cancer cell progression. FABP4 treatment promoted serum-induced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro. Furthermore, oleic acid promoted prostate cancer cell invasion only if FABP4 was present in the medium. These promoting effects were

reduced by FABP4 inhibitor, which inhibits FABP4 binding to fatty acids. Immunostaining for FABP4 showed that exogenous FABP4 was taken up into DU145 cells in three-dimensional culture. In mice, treatment with FABP4 inhibitor reduced the subcutaneous growth and lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells, positive for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, was increased in subcutaneous tumors of FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice, as compared with control mice. These results suggest that exogenous FABP4 might promote human prostate cancer cell progression by binding with fatty acids. Additionally, exogenous FABP4 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, independently of binding to fatty acids. Thus, FABP4 might be a key molecule to understand the mechanisms underlying the obesity-prostate cancer progression link.”
“Background: Despite progress in identifying genes associated with breast cancer, many more risk loci exist. Genome-wide association analyses in genetically-homogeneous populations, such as that of Sardinia (Italy), could represent an additional approach to detect low penetrance alleles.

“Breast cancer

“Breast cancer Crenolanib inhibitor is among the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Mammography is the most effective imaging method for detecting no-palpable early-stage breast cancer. Understanding the nature of data in mammography images is very important for developing a model that fits well the data. Statistical distributions are widely used on the modelling of the data. Gamma distribution is more suitable than Gaussian distribution for modelling the data in

mammography images. In this paper, we will use Gamma distribution to model the data in mammography images. The histogram of images can be seen as a mixture of Gamma distributions. Thresholds are selected at the valleys of a multi-modal histogram. The estimation of thresholds is based on the statistical parameters of the histogram. The expectation-maximization technique with gamma distribution (EMTG) is therefore developed to estimate the statistical histogram parameters. The experimental results on mammography images using this technique showed improvement in the accuracy in detection

of the fibro-glandular discs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is YH25448 mw increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to 3-deazaneplanocin A describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with

men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“JAK2 activity is tightly controlled through a self-inhibitory effect via its JAK homology domain 2 (JH2), which restricts the strength and duration of JAK2/STAT3 signaling under physiological conditions. Although multiple mutations within JAK2, which abrogate the function of JH2 and sustain JAK2 activation, are widely observed in hematological malignancies, comparable mutations have not been detected in solid tumors. How solid tumor cells override the autoinhibitory effect of the JH2 domain to maintain constitutive activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling remains puzzling.

Secondly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type IKK bet

Secondly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type IKK beta in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not suppress insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose

uptake, IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS1 association with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K or PKB phosphorylation. Thirdly, insulin signalling was not potentiated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking IKK beta. Finally, insulin treatment of 3T3-L1 selleck chemical adipocytes did not promote the recruitment of IKK beta to IRS1, supporting our findings that IKK beta, although activated by insulin, does not promote direct serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and does not contribute to the feedback inhibition of the insulin signalling cascade.”
“The kinetochore is a complex molecular machine that serves as the interface between sister chromatids and the mitotic pindle The kinetochore assembles at a particular chromosomal locus the centromere which is essential to maintain genomic stability during cell division The kinetochore is a macromolecular puzzle of subcomplexes assembled in a hierarchical manner

and fulfils three main functions microtubule attachment chromosome and sister chromatid movement and regulation of mitotic progression though the spindle assembly checkpoint In the present paper we compare recent results on the assembly organization NU7026 datasheet and function

of the kinetochore in human and Drosophila cells and conclude that although essential functions are highly conserved there are important selleck chemicals differences that might help define what is a minimal chromosome segregation machinery”
“Sorting of ubiquitinated proteins to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in mammalian cells relies on proteins with a Vps27/Hrs/STAM (VHS) domain. Here, we show that the amoeba Dictyostelium presents only one protein with a VHS domain: DdTom1. We demonstrate that the VHS domain of DdTom1 is followed by a Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation-factor-binding and Tom1 (GAT) domain that binds ubiquitin, and by a non-conserved C-terminal domain that can recruit clathrin, EGFr pathway substrate 15 and tumor susceptibility gene 101, a component of the MVB biogenesis machinery [endosomal complexes required for transport (ESCRT) complexes]. Both VHS and GAT domains interact with phospholipids and therefore could ensure the recruitment of DdTom1 to endosomal membranes. We propose that DdTom1 participates in an ancestral ESCRT-0 complex implicated in the sorting of ubiquitinated proteins into MVBs.”
“Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production.