001, cluster threshold > 10 mm3) Along the ventral surface of th

001, cluster threshold > 10 mm3). Along the ventral surface of the brain, a bilateral region of the parahippocampal gyrus was significantly more active to big than to small objects (henceforth labeled as “Big-PHC”), while a left-lateralized region in the occipitotemporal

sulcus extending into the inferior temporal gyrus was more active to small relative to big objects (henceforth “Small-OTS”). Along the lateral surface, a more posterior small-preference region was find more observed (“Small-LO” for lateral occipital), with a big-preference region in the right transverse occipital sulcus (“Big-TOS”; Figure 3). These regions of interest were also observed reliably in single subjects (Figures 3B and 3C), even with only one run of <10 min of scanning. A left Small-OTS region was present in 9 of 12 participants (bilateral in 1), a left Small-LO region was present in all 12 participants (bilateral in half the participants), and a Big-PHC region was present in 10 of 12

participants (bilateral in all participants). The Big-TOS region was less reliably observed OSI-744 clinical trial at the single-subject level with a more variable position across subjects, and it was thus not included for further analysis. These results show that big/small object selectivity is more reliable in the left hemisphere, particularly for the Small-OTS and Small-LO regions; an asymmetry opposite that of face-selective regions which show stronger representation in the right hemisphere (Kanwisher et al., 1997). Comparing these ROIs with the size-preference analysis, it is clear that these regions are not discrete regions of selectivity among a heterogeneous mix of big and small object preferences in the surrounding cortex. Instead, these regions-of-interest reflect the peaks of significant differential activity in an otherwise large-scale organization of big and small object preferences across this cortex. From these data, we do not

mean to imply that these entire sections of cortex are devoted solely to representing big objects or small objects. Rather, whatever underlying code is being used to represent object information across this cortex, big and small objects differ strongly in some regions, and the transitions between these regions are more smooth than modular. In Experiment 1a, observers were presented with one run of big and small objects. Adenosine In order to estimate the effect size within these regions, 8 new participants were shown two runs of big and small objects in Experiment 1b. Regions of interest were estimated from the first run for each subject and the magnitude of activation to big and small objects was computed in these regions using data from the second run. All 8 participants showed a Small-OTS region on the left (bilateral in 3) and a Small-LO region (bilateral in all 8), and 7 of 8 showed a Big-PHC region on the left (bilateral in 6 of 8). These regions showed differential responses that were 1.5 to 1.

Since many of these tasks, such as face recognition and image seg

Since many of these tasks, such as face recognition and image segmentation, are still challenging for computer algorithms, there is great interest in investigating how the brain implements these high-level computations. Recently, the mouse has emerged as

a powerful model system for studying vision. A primary drive behind this is the development of a wide array of genetic tools to both analyze connectivity and control activity in neural circuits (Luo et al., 2008), along with the experimental accessibility for recording and manipulation relative to human and nonhuman primates. On the other hand, the fact that the mouse is a nocturnal species with relatively low acuity raises the possibility that its visual system could be missing important aspects of vision studied in primates. However, a number of recent studies, from the retina up to V1, have demonstrated that most, though not all, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html basic properties of visual function are present in the mouse (Huberman and Niell, 2011). These observations open the door to using the new genetic tools available in mouse to address fundamental questions about how neural

circuits process visual information. Until now, primary visual cortex has been the farthest station along the visual pathway to be intensively studied in the mouse at the level of individual neurons. In Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library nmr this issue of Neuron, two groups report initial forays into mouse extrastriate cortex ( Andermann et al., 2011 and Marshel et al., 2011), armed with novel optical methods that allow them to identify and record from the various cortical areas. The two studies are complementary for in many ways. Marshel et al. provide a detailed functional map of the layout of nine extrastriate areas in the anesthetized mouse and show that among a subset of six of these, each region has a unique signature of spatiotemporal tuning.

On the other hand, Andermann et al. studied awake mice and concentrated more closely on two particular regions suggested to be part of the dorsal stream, finding that each is differently specialized for motion processing. A tantalizing glimpse of this uncharted territory beyond V1 had previously been provided by mapping and anatomical studies from Andreas Burkhalter and colleagues (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007 and Wang et al., 2011). These studies demonstrated that the region around V1 contains a number of cortical areas each encompassing its own mapped representation of visual space (Figure 1B), much as seen in monkeys and humans. Furthermore, the connectivity of these regions suggested a homology with the dorsal and ventral pathways in the primate cortex. In contrast to primates, where visual cortex spans centimeters, the entirety of extrastriate cortex in the mouse spans less than five millimeters, with some areas only a few hundred microns across.

A more effective way to eliminate unwanted fears would be to eras

A more effective way to eliminate unwanted fears would be to erase the fear memory itself. It has long been appreciated that new memories undergo a period of

consolidation in which they are labile and sensitive to disruption (McGaugh, 2000). Long-term synaptic plasticity in the brain requires de novo protein synthesis (Deadwyler et al., 1987, Krug et al., 1984 and Stanton and Sarvey, 1984), and administration of protein synthesis inhibitors soon after learning produces memory impairments (Agranoff et al., 1965, Agranoff and Klinger, 1964 and Davis and Squire, 1984). Therefore, one strategy for reducing pathological fear would be to prevent the consolidation of long-term fear memories soon after a traumatic experience. Consistent with this aim, several www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html www.selleckchem.com/products/CP-673451.html investigators have now shown that fear memory is inhibited by systemic posttraining protein synthesis inhibition (Bourtchouladze et al., 1998 and Lattal and Abel, 2001). Moreover, infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the BLA within hours of fear conditioning disrupts the consolidation of long-term fear memories and reduces conditional fear responses (Maren et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2006, Schafe and LeDoux, 2000 and Schafe et al., 1999). In addition to protein synthesis inhibitors, administering behavioral interventions soon after fear conditioning might also disrupt long-term

fear memory by interfering with consolidation processes. For example, it has been reported that administering low-frequency stimulation soon after fear conditioning isothipendyl eliminates conditioning-related changes in MAPK phosphorylation in the BLA, a biochemical correlate of long-term synaptic plasticity and fear memory, as well as fear

memory (Lin et al., 2003a). Based on this evidence, Davis and colleagues explored whether administering extinction trials soon after fear conditioning would yield a permanent loss of fear, rather than the temporary inhibition of fear typically observed with delayed extinction training (Myers et al., 2006). To test this, they administered extinction trials shortly (i.e., 10 min) after fear-potentiated startle conditioning in rats and examined whether fear suppression was more durable than that produced by extinction 24 hr after conditioning. They found that this immediate extinction procedure resulted in a loss of fear that was quite durable and exhibited little spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, or renewal. The implication of these findings is that early extinction training resulted in a permanent fear loss, which is not typical when extinction training is conducted 1 day after conditioning. The lack of fear recovery in this report suggested that immediate extinction might disrupt the consolidation of fear memory, yielding a relatively permanent loss of fear. Although promising, several laboratories have now found that immediate extinction does not always reduce the recovery of fear (Archbold et al., 2010 and Huff et al.

) Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, unless otherwise indicated

). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, unless otherwise indicated. The p values for open-field experiments were calculated using the two tailed unpaired Students t test. Latencies were calculated for every cell with a PI greater than 0.011, the upper median confidence interval PI of our control experiments (n = 13 retinas; n = 409 cells). For each cell, firing rate was averaged over the first two light periods (dark and 380 nm light), with a 10 ms bin size. Basal firing rate was calculated from the

upper median confidence interval in 500 nm light. Response latency was then calculated as the time difference between the onset of 380 nm light and the first bin with a firing rate greater than the cell’s basal activity. The median response latency was 45 ms (n = 10 retinas; n = 368 cells). All Anti-cancer Compound Library in vitro statistics were performed with MATLAB (Mathworks) algorithms. Distributions were Roxadustat in vitro first tested for normality

using the Shapiro-Wilk test. For non-normal distributions, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for pairwise comparisons. The 95% confidence intervals for medians were generated by resampling the original distributions and applying the bias-corrected percentile method (Efron and Tibshirani, 1986). Results with p < 0.05 were considered significant. For all box plots, box limits represent the 25th and 75th percentile, respectively. The red line represents the median and whiskers denote 1.5 times the interquartile range from the limits of the box. Outliers are marked by red + signs. We thank A. Anishchenko and J. Elstrott for helpful comments tuclazepam and discussions; Trevor Lee, Andrew Noblet, R. Montpetit, T. Lamprecht, and X. Qiu for technical

and experimental assistance; and J. Flannery and K. Greenberg for valuable suggestions. This work was supported by the National Eye Institute (NEI), which provided research Grant EY018957 to R.H.K., Core Grant P30 EY003176 to R.H.K., and Core Grant P30 EY001730 to R.V.G. This work was also supported by Beckman Foundation for Macular Research (R.H.K.) and a Research to Prevent Blindness award to Y.S. and R.V.G. and an Ezell Fellowship to A.P. The NEI also funded the Nanomedicine Development Center (PN2 EY018241), which supported this interdisciplinary project. R.H.K. and D.T. are SAB members and consultants of Photoswitch Bioscience, Inc., which is developing commercial uses for chemical photoswitches. A.P., J.L., I.T., J.N., Y.S., T.H., I.D.K., and K.B. conducted the in vitro and in vivo experiments. D.T. designed and synthesized chemical reagents. R.H.K. and R.V.G. coordinated the research and wrote the manuscript. R.H.K. initiated the research and supervised the program. “
“Hearing loss is one of the most common human sensory deficits, with congenital hearing loss occurring in approximately 1.5 in 1,000 children (Smith et al., 2005). Of these, about half are attributed to a genetic basis (Di Domenico et al., 2011).

Electron microscopy (EM) analysis of muskelin-specific immunopero

Electron microscopy (EM) analysis of muskelin-specific immunoperoxidase

signals confirmed this view. Muskelin was identified at post-, but not presynaptic, sites of many but not all symmetric (inhibitory) synapses (Figures 1K and 1L), as well as at individual nonsynaptic intracellular vesicles (Figure 7C, arrow). To investigate the biological role of muskelin, we established a muskelin KO mouse. Exon 1 of the Mkln1 gene OSI-906 research buy (encoding muskelin) encodes only 32 amino acids. An OmniBank® ES cell clone ( Zambrowicz et al., 1998) with an insertion of a retroviral gene trapping vector in intron 1 (primary RNA transcript: position 6970 bp) of the Mkln1 locus ( Figure 2A) was used. Heterozygous animals were crossed to produce wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/−), and homozygous (−/−) mice for further analysis. PCR and Southern blotting confirmed the presence of one mutant allele in +/− and two mutant alleles in −/− animals, respectively ( Figures 2B and 2C). In addition, western blot analysis with a muskelin-specific antibody ( Ledee et al., 2005) confirmed that muskelin Raf targets protein levels were reduced by half in +/− and completely lost in −/− animals, as compared to +/+ genotypes ( Figure 2D). Accordingly, immunohistochemistry revealed a loss of muskelin signals in −/−, as compared to +/+

cerebellar and hippocampal tissue slices ( Figures 2E and 2F) and the use of a second and independent muskelin antibody ( Tagnaouti et al., 2007) failed to coprecipitate muskelin from −/−, but not from +/+ mice ( Figure 2G). We therefore conclude that muskelin expression is completely abolished in KO animals. Cresyl violet stainings revealed no gross histological abnormalities in KO brain tissue slices ( Figure 2H), suggesting that muskelin plays no major roles in brain development or anatomical changes might be subtle. Functional GABAergic synaptic transmission is essential for synchronizing the activity of neuronal networks giving rise to different sets of neuronal population rhythms in the hippocampus, i.e., theta, gamma, and

ripple oscillations (Buzsáki and Draguhn, 2004). All these hippocampal rhythms have been implicated in processes underlying the temporary storage and successive no consolidation of long-term memories (Buzsáki and Draguhn, 2004 and Diekelmann and Born, 2010). To assess the consequences of muskelin deficiency on the level of neuronal network synchronization, we analyzed sharp wave-associated ripples in acute hippocampal slices (Maier et al., 2003) from muskelin KO and control animals in area CA1 (Figures 2I and 2J). Spectral analysis of sharp wave ripples displayed a robustly enhanced power component in the ripple frequency range (Figure 2K). The distribution of cumulated ripple power also showed a systematic shift to higher values in slices from muskelin KO animals compared to controls (p = 1.

If learning in perturbation paradigms were purely model-free, one

If learning in perturbation paradigms were purely model-free, one would expect substantial trial-to-trial variability in movements. However, such exploratory behavior is not usually observed; in fact, it is only seen if subjects receive nothing but binary feedback about success or failure of their movements (Izawa and Shadmehr, 2011). Despite the success of SSMs in explaining initial reduction of errors, there are phenomena in adaptation tasks that these models have difficulty accounting for. In particular, relearning of a given perturbation for a second time is faster than

initial learning, a phenomenon known as savings (Ebbinghaus, 1913, Kojima et al., 2004, Krakauer et al., 2005, Smith et al., 2006 and Zarahn et al., 2008), whereas a basic single-timescale SSM Y-27632 predicts that learning should always occur RG7420 research buy at the same rate, regardless of past experience (Zarahn et al., 2008). Although SSM variants that include multiple timescales of learning (Kording et al., 2007 and Smith et al., 2006) are able to explain savings over short timescales, this approach fails to predict

the fact that savings still occurs following a prolonged period of washout of initial learning (Krakauer et al., 2005 and Zarahn et al., 2008). Beyond SSMs, there are other potential ways to explain savings and still remain within the framework of internal models. For example, more complex neural network formulations of internal model learning can exhibit savings despite extensive washout (Ajemian et al., 2010), owing to redundancies in how a particular internal model can be represented. Another possible explanation is that rather than updating a single internal model, savings could occur by concurrent learning and switching between multiple internal models, with apparent Florfenicol faster relearning occurring because of a switch to a previously learned model (Haruno et al., 2001 and Lee

and Schweighofer, 2009). The core idea in all of these models is that savings is the result of either fast reacquisition or re-expression of a previously learned internal model; i.e., they all explain savings within a model-based learning framework. An entirely different idea is that savings does not emerge from internal model acquisition but instead is attributable to a qualitatively different form of learning that operates independently. We hypothesize that savings reflects the recall of a motor memory formed through a model-free learning process that occurs via reinforcement of those actions that lead to success, regardless of the state of the internal model. This idea is consistent with the suggestion that the brain recruits multiple anatomically and computationally distinct learning processes that combine to accomplish a task goal (Doya, 1999).

We next examined whether the chronic opiate-induced morphological

We next examined whether the chronic opiate-induced morphological change was correlated with changes in DA neuronal excitability. check details We found that chronic morphine-treated mice, compared with sham-treated mice, exhibited an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of VTA DA neurons in brain slices (Figure 1C). This effect was not dependent on residual morphine in the slice, since blockade of opioid receptors with naloxone did not affect cell excitability

(Figure 1C). Moreover, the inclusion of a low dose of morphine (5 μM) in the bath solution to prevent “withdrawal” in the slice did not alter DA neuron firing rate (Figure 1C). Given the observations that chronic morphine decreases the size of VTA selleck chemicals DA neurons, but concomitantly increases their excitability, it was important to determine whether net DA output from VTA is altered. We examined levels of extracellular DA in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in vivo, widely considered a key determinant of reward (Hyman et al., 2006). In opposition

to the increased firing rate, we found that chronic morphine dramatically decreased electrically evoked DA output in NAc of rats as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (Figure 1D). This reduction in DA output from VTA DA neurons supports the notion that the reduced soma size of the neurons, induced by chronic morphine, correlates with functional output, consistent with the reward MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit tolerance induced by chronic morphine under these conditions (Russo et al., 2007). Next, we examined a possible relationship between the increase in VTA DA neuron firing rate and soma size decrease, with the hypothesis that the increased firing rate per se induces changes in soma size. We virally overexpressed

a dominant-negative K+ channel subunit (dnK, KCNAB2-S188A, R189L) locally within VTA; we showed previously that this mutant channel increases the firing rate of VTA DA neurons (Krishnan et al., 2007). Overexpression of dnK was sufficient to decrease the surface area of VTA DA neurons (Figure 2A). To obtain the converse type of information, we virally overexpressed wild-type Kir2.1 in VTA, which we showed decreases DA neuron firing rate (Krishnan et al., 2007). While overexpression of Kir2.1 alone did not affect VTA DA soma size (data not shown), it completely blocked the ability of chronic morphine both to decrease soma size (Figure 2B) and to increase DA neuron firing rate (Figure 2C). These findings support our hypothesis that the morphine-induced increase in VTA DA neuron excitability is both necessary and sufficient for mediating the decrease in soma size. Given the increase in VTA DA neuronal firing rate observed in response to chronic morphine, we examined possible underlying mechanisms. One possibility is that morphine, by downregulating AKT activity in these neurons (Russo et al.

, 2010) GABAergic cells in the BLA are comprised of several grou

, 2010). GABAergic cells in the BLA are comprised of several groups (McDonald, 1982 and Sosulina et al., 2010), with diverse neurochemical expression profiles (Jasnow et al., 2009, Mascagni and McDonald, 2003, Rainnie et al., 2006 and Smith et al., 2000). These might play specific GS-7340 cell line physiological roles. However, GABAergic cell types of the BLA have not been fully characterized, and there is a pressing need to define the nature and function of such cellular diversity (Ehrlich et al., 2009). A division of labor between

GABAergic cell types in controlling local network activities is exemplified in hippocampus, where cells innervating distinct neuronal compartments fire at specific oscillation phases (Klausberger et al., 2003 and Tukker et al., 2007). We hypothesized that BLA GABAergic cells contribute in a type-specific manner to the coordination of θ oscillatory interactions with the hippocampus and local responses to salient sensory stimuli. We investigated this by recording the spontaneous and noxious stimulus-driven firing of anatomically-identified BLA interneurons in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that distinct types of BLA GABAergic cell fulfill specialized and complementary roles in regulating behaviorally relevant network activities. We simultaneously recorded learn more spontaneous single-neuron activity in BLA (comprised

of the lateral and basal nuclei) and hippocampal θ oscillations in dorsal CA1 (dCA1) LFPs of urethane-anesthetized rats. Prominent θ oscillations (4.15 ± 0.23 Hz, mean ± SD) occurred during cortical activated states in dCA1 (Klausberger et al., 2003), but not in BLA LFPs. Gamma (γ) oscillations were also detected in dCA1 LFPs (42.1 ± 1.60 Hz, mean ± s.d.). We recorded interneuron responses to noxious stimuli by delivering electrical shocks and pinches to the hindpaw controlateral to the recording sites. We also examined the firing of BLA glutamatergic principal neurons in relation to dCA1 θ. After recordings, neurons were juxtacellularly filled with Neurobiotin, allowing for their unambiguous identification. Interneurons with somata in the BLA were recorded and labeled (Figure S1, available online, shows cell locations). These were

GABAergic, as all tested cells expressed the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and/or glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; Figures 3F and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II 4I), and all synapses examined with electron microscopy were symmetric. Interneuron types were distinguished according to the combination of their postsynaptic targets, neurochemical markers and axo-dendritic patterns. Twenty eight GABAergic cells could be classified in four types: axo-axonic, parvalbumin-expressing basket, calbindin-expressing dendrite-targeting, and “AStria-projecting” cells. Axo-axonic cells (n = 6) were recorded and anatomically indentified. During dCA1 θ, they spontaneously fired action potentials at a mean frequency of 12.4 Hz (range 6.5–15.9 Hz; Table 1; Figure 1A). The firing of 4 of 6 cells was significantly modulated in phase with dCA1 θ (p < 0.

For some cells, rectification was incomplete, as seen by the shal

For some cells, rectification was incomplete, as seen by the shallow, but nonzero slope of the obtained nonlinearities for nonpreferred signals (Figure 3B). Iso-rate curves (Figures 3A–3C, blue lines) displayed more variable shapes than iso-latency curves. Rucaparib order For some cells, the iso-rate curve had approximately the same shape as the cell’s

iso-latency curve (Figures 3A and 3B), also indicating a nonlinearity of stimulus integration that is approximately threshold-quadratic or sometimes close to threshold-linear (insets in Figures 3A and 3B, blue lines). For other ganglion cells, however, the iso-rate curves displayed a notably different shape (Figure 3C), characterized by a notch along the lower-left diagonal. This notch gave the curves a distinctive nonconvex shape. It showed that relatively little contrast was required for these cells to achieve the predefined spike count when both receptive field halves were stimulated with similar (negative) contrast. Stimulation

of only one receptive field half, on the other hand, required much larger contrast values. Thus, when considering the spike count, these ganglion cells displayed exceptional sensitivity to spatially homogeneous stimulation of the receptive field, and in the following we will therefore refer to these cells as homogeneity detectors. The classification of iso-rate curves into convex and nonconvex curves did not depend on the chosen target spike count. Convex iso-rate curves appeared to be largely scaled versions of each selleck kinase inhibitor other if measured for the same cell at different spike counts (Figure 3D), whereas iso-rate curves of homogeneity detectors displayed the characteristic

nonconvex shape over a range of different spike counts (Figure 3E). However, the notch in the iso-rate curve became more pronounced with higher target spike counts, a fact PDK4 to which we will return when discussing the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the nonconvex shape of homogeneity detectors did not depend on the exact stimulus layout; it proved robust to changes in stimulation radius or insertion of a gap between the two stimulus areas (Figure 3F). To quantify the degree to which individual iso-response curves were convex or nonconvex, we defined a form factor that compares the radial distance of the curve along the lower-left diagonal to its linear prediction obtained from the intersections of the curve with the two axes of the plot (see Experimental Procedures for details). In particular, this form factor is smaller than unity for a nonconvex iso-rate curve as in Figure 3C and larger than unity for the iso-response curves of Figures 3A and 3B. Calculating the form factor for all measured iso-response curves confirmed that iso-latency curves always had similar convex shapes (Figure 3G). In fact, their form factors clustered around their average value of 1.38 (standard deviation: 0.08), close to the value of 2≈1.41, which is expected from quadratic integration of preferred stimuli.

Moderate stimulation of neurons with NMDA seemingly fails to acti

Moderate stimulation of neurons with NMDA seemingly fails to activate calcineurin and thereby allows the activation and translocation of CaMKII to inhibitory synapses (Marsden et al., 2010). As mentioned earlier, NMDAR-induced de novo insertion of GABAARs into the plasma membrane is Selleck Epigenetic inhibitor further dependent

on GABARAP, NSF, and GRIP (Marsden et al., 2007). Thus, the directionality of neural activity-induced trafficking of GABAARs is strictly stimulus intensity dependent. Signaling by pancreatic insulin is pivotal for the regulation of peripheral glucose and lipid metabolism. However, insulin is also produced in brain (Havrankova et al., 1981 and Stevenson, 1983) and released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner (Clarke et al., 1986). Signaling by insulin receptors contributes to structural maturation of neuronal dendrites, as well as ZD1839 manufacturer functional synaptic plasticity (reviewed in Chiu and Cline, 2010). In addition, insulin signaling leads to a rapid increase in the cell surface accumulation and function of postsynaptic GABAARs (Wan et al., 1997 and Wang et al., 2003b). A first line of investigation indicates that insulin-induced translocation of GABAARs to the cell surface requires activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt, a primary target of insulin signaling downstream of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K,

Figure 6A) (Wang et al., 2003b). PI3K-mediated phosphorylation of membrane lipids Phosphoprotein phosphatase is established as a mechanism that leads to recruitment

of Akt to the plasma membrane where it is phosphorylated and activated by the serine-threonine kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) (Cantley, 2002). In vitro assays showed that activated Akt phosphorylates a conserved phosphorylation site present in all three β subunits of GABAARs (S409 in β1, S410 in β2, S408/409 in β3) (Wang et al., 2003b and Xu et al., 2006). Cotransfection of Akt with α2β2γ2 receptors increased the cell surface expression of these receptors in HEK293 cells. Lastly, phosphorylation of β2 S410 was shown to be essential for Akt-induced surface expression of corresponding receptors in transfected neurons (Wang et al., 2003b). Curiously, the Akt phosphorylation site of β1-3 subunits is identical with the aforementioned motif in β subunits that regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of GABAARs. One might therefore conclude that insulin-induced surface expression and function of GABAARs reflects reduced clathrin-mediated endocytosis of GABAARs. However, insulin-induced potentiation of GABA-evoked currents was completely abolished by pretreatment of neurons with brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of anterograde transport from ER to Golgi (Fujii et al., 2010). In the presence of BFA, insulin induced a modest run-down of GABA-evoked currents, thereby facilitating rather than inhibiting GABAAR endocytosis.