RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis Frozen Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor tissues were disrupted in 2 ml tubes under frozen conditions, using the Retsch Mixer Mill MM2000 with two stainless steel beads (2 mm diameter) in each
sample. RNA was extracted, using the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen). The RNA concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 260 nm, using the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies). The RNA purity was evaluated by means of the 260/280 ratio. Equal amounts of starting material (1 μg RNA) were used in a 20 μl Quantitect Reverse Transcription reaction (Qiagen), which includes a genomic DNA elimination step and makes use of random hexamer priming. After this reverse transcription, a tenfold dilution of the cDNA was made using 1/10 diluted TE buffer (1 mM Tris–HCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0) and stored at −70°C. Primer design Tobacco nucleotide sequences were obtained from the GeneBank
database (Table 1). Primer pairs were designed, using Primer 3 Software (http://www.genome.wi.mit.edu/cgibin/primer/primer3.cgi) under the following conditions: optima Tm at 60°C, GC% between 20% and 80%, 150 bp maximum length (Table 1). Five nuclear-encoded reference learn more genes: 18S rRNA (Nt-18S), actin 9 (Nt-ACT9), elongationfactor 1α (Nt-EL1), alfa-tubulin (Nt-αTUB) and small subunit of RubisCO (Nt-SSU); and nine plastid-encoded reference genes: 16S rRNA (Nt-16S), β subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Nt-ACC), initiation factor 1 (HMPL-504 order Nt-IN1), ribosomal protein S3 (Nt-RPS3), ribosomal protein S11 (Nt-RPS11), ribosomal protein S2 (Nt-RPS2), RNA polymerase beta subunit 2 (Nt-RPOC2), NADH dehydrogeanse D3 (Nt-NDHC) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit (Nt-NDHI) were selected. Also gene-specific primers were designed for isopentenyltransferase
of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (IPT) and cytokinin-dehydrogenase/oxygenase 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX) to demonstrate the presence of the transgene within our transgenic (Pssu-ipt, CKX) tobacco plants and for the nuclear and plastid-encoded genes of interest (ATPC, PSBO, PSBE, PETD, PSAA, PSAB). Reference genes and genes of interest are listed in Table 1 with this website their primer sequence. Table 1 Primer sequences of the used housekeeping genes and genes of interest Genes Accession member Primer sequence 5′–3′ Primer sequence 3′–5′ Primer efficiency (%) Nuclear-encoded reference genes 18S rRNA AJ236016 CCGGCGACGCATCATT AGGCCACTATCCTACCATCGAA 106.24 Actin 9 X69885 CTATTCTCCGCTTTGGACTTGGCA AGGACCTCAGGACAACGGAAACG 95.67 Elongation factor 1 Z14079 TTCTCGACTGCCACACTTCCA TCCTTACCAGAACGCCTGTCAAT 96.12 Alfa-tubulin AJ421412.1 GATGTTGTGCCAAAGGATGTCA GGCTGATAGTTGATACCACACTTGAAT 93.43 rbcS X02353 AATGGATGGGTTCCTTGTTT GTATGCCTTCTTCGCCTCTC 107.16 Plastid-encoded reference genes 16S rRNA V00165 GCATGTGGTTTAATTCGATGCA CCGAAGGCACCCCTCTCT 104.15 accD Z00044 CGAAAGGAATGGTGAAGTTGA CTGCCAGGAGATAGAGTCAAAA 98.50 Initiation factor 1 Z00044 CGAAAGGAATGGTGAAGTTGA CTGCCAGGAGATAGAGTCAAAA 97.