2006; also see below). Furthermore, object trajectories have been demonstrated to be a crucial parameter in target-distractor discrimination. When the MOT movement algorithm was altered in a way that resulted in an interdependence of target and distractor trajectories (e.g., “behaving” as if chasing each other), tracking performance declined significantly (Suganuma and Yokosawa 2006). Importantly, we propose that object identity is not only sustained based on past motion trajectories, but that spatiotemporal information is also used as a feedforward function. Should our assumption hold true, then prediction processes should be indicated by PM activation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical during MOT, as will
be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical elaborated in the following section. Prediction processes and the PM The premotor cortex, as its name implicates, is crucially involved in the planning and preparation of motor acts (for a meta-analysis, see Grèzes
and Decety 2001). Interestingly, some parts of the PM (particularly those located in the inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]), not only show involvement in processes of action control, but during the observation of motor acts as well (Rizzolatti and Craighero 2004). During action observation, these areas have been suggested to translate visual codes into action codes, providing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a neurophysiological link between visual perception and action control (Rizzolatti et al. 2001; Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia 2010). More precisely, it appears that prediction processes, as employed during action control (e.g., generating short-term templates Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of expected sensory consequences of an action, see Schubotz 2007), are also exploited during action perception (Blakemore and Decety 2001). Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that PM activation reflects the simulation and prediction of yet to be performed actions (Schubotz and von Cramon 2004; Stadler et al. 2011, 2012). Such “emulations” of others’ actions (Schubotz 2007) are not necessarily limited to an observer’s ability to reproduce the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/kpt-330.html observed or predicted action with their own motor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical system, nor do the observed actions have
to be of human origin in the first place (Cross et al. 2011a,b). Rather, Schubotz (2007) proposed that said emulations are used “by default in a simulation mode for predictions of observable events of any kind as long as they Phosphoprotein phosphatase take place within several seconds” (Schubotz 2007, p. 211; italics added for emphasis). That is, even in the absence of motor requirements, the PM functions as an “internal forward model of environmental dynamics” (Schubotz and von Cramon 2003, p. S124), modeling dynamic sensory patterns based on sequential event characteristics (Schubotz and von Cramon 2003, 2004; Schubotz 2007; Wolfensteller et al. 2007). The following section will review previous experimental evidence that, we argue, speaks in favor of the employment of prediction processes and PM involvement during MOT.