The detection limits for each hormone measured

The detection limits for each hormone measured FDA-approved Drug Library were the following: cortisol, 0.4 μg/dL; DHEA-S, 2 μg/dL; estradiol, 2 pg/mL; prolactin, 0.25 ng/mL and testosterone, 0.1 ng/dL. IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) levels were measured in cell culture supernatants using commercially available ELISA kits. Culture supernatants were harvested at 96 h for IFN-γ, 48 h for IL-10 and 24 h for TNF-α. Assays were performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The detection limits for each cytokine were as follows: IFN-γ, 55 pg/mL; IL-10, 3 pg/mL and TNF-α, 3 pg/mL. Hormone concentrations in controls

and patients were compared using the Mann–Whitney test. Correlations between the levels of cytokines and hormones were evaluated with the

Spearman test. All statistical tests were performed using GraphPad software version 5.0 (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). To determine whether hormone levels were associated with LCL, we assessed plasma levels of cortisol, estradiol, DHEA-S, prolactin and testosterone in NV and LCL patients with an active cutaneous lesion. The clinical profile of the patients analyzed (n = 57) is shown in Table 1. LCL patients (n = 32) had lower plasma levels of DHEA-S, prolactin and testosterone than NV (n = 32; Fig. 1C, D and F). No difference between patients and controls was AZD8055 cell line observed

in levels of cortisol or estradiol ( Fig. 1A and B). Possible correlations between hormone levels and clinical or immunological parameters, such as lesion size, healing time, Glucantime dosage and SLA-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α levels were analyzed using the Spearman test. We tested the correlation between each hormone and each clinical parameter or cytokine. Cortisol showed a positive correlation with healing time and dose of Glucantime used in the treatment and a negative correlation with in vitro SLA-stimulated IFN-γ levels (Fig. 2A–C). For estradiol, males were analyzed separately from females because of the considerable difference in the concentration Selleckchem Osimertinib of this hormone between the two groups. Plasma levels of estradiol in males correlated positively with lesion size, whereas in females, a correlation was observed with total dose of Glucantime used in treatment (Fig. 3A and B). Prolactin correlated positively with lesion size and negatively with in vitro IFN-γ levels (Fig. 4A and B). Other correlations tested did not reach statistical significance. To evaluate whether hormone level changes were similar in males and females with LCL, each group was tested separately. Male patients (n = 17) showed a reduction in levels of DHEA-S, prolactin and testosterone compared with controls ( Fig. 5 and Fig. 6C and E).

Nutrition Evidence Library Staff Director: Joanne M Spahn, MS, R

Nutrition Evidence Library Staff Director: Joanne M. Spahn, MS, RD, FADA Joan M. G. Lyon, MS, RD Jean M. Altman, MS Donna Blum-Kemelor, MS, RD, LD Eve V. Essery, PhD Thomas V. Fungwe, PhD Patricia Carrera MacNeil, MS, LN, CNS Mary M. McGrane, PhD Julie Obbagy, PhD, RD “
“The task of setting up a complicated spin system for a solid state NMR or EPR simulation is a noted test of perseverance: an aspiring theorist

would find himself juggling nested time-dependent tensor rotations in half a dozen ad hoc conventions [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7], struggling with Euler angle singularities [8], [9] and [10] and trying to visualize interactions that occur in direct products Sunitinib selleck of Lie algebras [11] and [12]. Function libraries [13], [14], [15], [16] and [17], command-line [14], [15], [16] and [17] and interactive [18]simulation tools for spin systems are available, but convenient point-and-click visualization and editing tools for setting up complex calculations are in their infancy. More importantly, no standards exist (whether by ISO, IUPAC or even a consensus) on a universal spin system

description format that would be applicable across all types of Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy – every major simulation package has its own spin system specification requirements. Of the existing formats, the Pople convention [19] only deals with NMR and the latest IUPAC recommendations only go as far as listing reasonable chemical shift and shielding tensor reporting styles [4] and [7]. At the time of writing, the task of setting up a complicated spin system for simulation

still amounts to manual parsing of unintuitive conventions and hand-coding of the associated tensor transformations. In this communication, we suggest a simple and general XML [20] and [21] format for spin system description that is the result of broad consultations within NMR and EPR communities. Vasopressin Receptor The format does not attempt to introduce or change any of the current interaction specification conventions [1], [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25] and [26], but instead incorporates them as special cases and options into a common framework. SpinXML format is human-readable, extensible and easy to edit, both manually and automatically. We also describe a graphical user interface that was designed to facilitate the setting up of complicated spin systems and is capable of importing interaction data from electronic structure theory programs as well as producing input files for spin dynamics simulation packages. This section describes elements, types and attributes specified by the SpinXML schema file that is included into the Supplementary Information and available for download from the Spinach library website (

Commercial bothropic antivenom neutralized the neuromuscular bloc

Commercial bothropic antivenom neutralized the neuromuscular blockade to varying degrees, depending GSK458 purchase on the venom concentration. We thank Dr. Maria de Fátima Domingos Furtado for providing the venom and Dr. Thalita Rocha (Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil) for help with the histological analysis. D.S.M. was supported by an MSc studentship

from Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and S.R.F. was supported by an MSc studentship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). L.R.S., M.A.C.H. and S.H. are supported by research fellowships from CNPq. “
“Snake venom poisoning is a public health issue for many countries and despite the great difficulty

in raising the actual data of these accidents, some studies show that there are about 5.4 million to 5.5 selleck chemicals million accidents, more than 400,000 amputations and about 20,000 to 125,000 deaths per year worldwide. These numbers surpass several other neglected tropical diseases in occurrence and number of fatalities, such as leishmaniasis, dengue, schistosomiasis, cholera, and Chagas disease ( Williams et al., 2010). In addition, snake bites only joined the list of neglected tropical diseases recently, in April 2009, showing that it was not seen as an important public health issue until recently ( World Health Organization, 2011). The problem of snake venom poisoning is that it exists in the midst of several factors which complicate its solution, such as: profile of the victim; lack of training programs for health staff; underreporting of accidents; improvement in the production, storage and distribution of sera; further studies on quality and safety of serums produced (World Health Organization, 2010). The most recommended

treatment in cases of snakebite accidents is serum therapy. The neutralizing ability is assessed by evaluating Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase the capacity of the antivenom to inhibit the lethal action of the reference venom, i.e., from Bothrops jararaca, in a murine model ( World Health Organization, 1981). The antivenom produced by the Butantan Institute is prepared by immunization of horses with a mixture of venoms of the species: Bothrops alternatus (12.5%), Bothrops jararacussu (12.5%), Bothrops moojeni (12.5%), Bothrops neuwiedi (12.5%) and B. jararaca (50%). But in Brazil, there are several species of the Bothrops genus (sensu latu) which differ widely in composition of venom and with regard to the neutralization of its components, such as metalloproteinase, PLA2 and hyaluronidases ( Queiroz et al., 2008). Indeed, the interspecific variation in venom composition and toxicity of Brazilian snakes from the Bothrops genus, poses a challenge to the provision of antivenom to be used in accidents caused by any one of the species.

No significant reduction in cervical cell viability was observed

No significant reduction in cervical cell viability was observed in the samples that were subjected to a delayed processing compared to those processed immediately ( Table 2). Because of the low yield of cells that can be recovered by cytobrush from the female genital tract (Nkwanyana et al., 2009), few studies have evaluated the feasibility and impact of cryopreservation on cell recovery and viability. We compared the number of CD3+

T cells isolated from the cervical cytobrushes of 13 HIV-infected women before and after storage in liquid nitrogen. In these samples, the median CD3+ T cell number obtained ex vivo was 75 280 (IQR 37 240–90 560), while Microbiology inhibitor a significantly lower median of 22 664 [(IQR 13 968–44 672); 48.7% recovery; p = 0.005] was recovered after thawing. Measurements of CD3+ event counts after ICS or CD3+ T cell numbers by Guava similarly showed that T cell numbers were relatively stable over the 24 h period at 37 °C, 4 °C and room temperature but

that there was a significantly lower T cell yield after cryopreservation. Annexin V and PI staining were used to evaluate the viability of CD3+ T cells before freezing and after thawing (Fig. 1). Fig. 1A shows a representative plot of Annexin V versus PI staining of CD3+ T cells from a cervical cytobrush sample. A median value of 99.5% (IQR 96.16–100.0%) of cervical cytobrush-derived CD3+ cells were viable ex vivo; of which, 18.3% co-expressed the late apoptotic markers Annexin V and PI (IQR 6.5–44.3%), 9.8% expressed Annexin V only and not PI indicating early apoptosis (IQR 3.3–15.7%; Annexin + PI−), while 61.4% were not apoptotic and lacked Epacadostat supplier expression of either marker ( Fig. 1B; IQR 39.3–82.60%). We found that only a small proportion of the cervical T cells were dead [1.0% Annexin V-PI+; IQR 0–3.2%; Fig. 1B]. After thawing cervical cytobrush cells taken from HIV-infected women, we found that 96.9% (IQR 89.3–99.4) Thiamine-diphosphate kinase of CD3+ cells recovered were viable and a comparable proportion of thawed cells expressed early or late apoptotic markers Annexin V and PI as found on ex vivo T cells ( Fig. 1B).

If thawed cells were rested overnight (as is a common practise with thawed PBMCs prior to functional analysis), we found that the majority of CD3+ T cells were co-expressing late apoptotic markers Annexin V and PI (78.5% IQR 78.3–78.6) indicating that they were in the process of undergoing apoptosis. When we compared the impact of thawing and resting on cervical cytobrush cell viability from women who were not infected with HIV ( Fig. 1B; n = 2), we found that viability of thawed cells was comparable to HIV-infected women but that CD3+ T cells from uninfected women did not exhibit the massive increase in expression of apoptotic markers after resting as was noted in cytobrush samples from HIV-infected women. From this data, conducting analyses on HIV-infected samples is best performed immediately after thawing.

Sublethal doses can cause lesions that include hepatocellular hyp

Sublethal doses can cause lesions that include hepatocellular hypertrophy, intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and apoptosis (Guzman and Solter, 2002). However, it is well known that MCYSTs can also affect other organs and tissues (Humpage, 2008; Wang et al., 2008). Moreover, several studies have confirmed that prolonged exposure to low doses can promote tumors

in tissues such as the colon, skin and liver (Falconer and Humpage, 1996; Ito et al., 1997). These toxins can enter the cell through a group of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP). Members of the multispecific OATP family can be detected in nearly all tissues in humans, rodents this website and other animals, although they are less expressed in most non-liver VEGFR inhibitor cells (Fischer et al., 2005). They play an important role in the absorption, distribution and excretion of numerous xenobiotic molecules (Hagenbuch and Meier, 2003). Recently, Fischer et al. (2010) described different affinities between MCYST congeners and specific

OATPs. Kidney expresses OATPs and is one of the organs affected after exposure to MCYSTs (Wang et al., 2008). It also plays a role in excretion of the toxin (Ito et al., 2002), but the mechanisms of nephrotoxicity are not completely known. Some in vitro studies on kidney epithelial cells showed that higher doses cause similar effects to those observed in hepatocytes, mostly related to cytoskeleton disarrangement (Khan et al., 1995 and Khan et al., 1996). Studies on Vero cells showed that a mild MCYST concentration leads to early effects (vacuolization) on endoplasmic reticulum, probably related to an autophagy process as part of a cell response to the aggression (Alverca et al., 2009). Moreover, those cells under lower concentrations showed increased proliferation, which suggests the potential tumor promotion effect of MCYST on renal cells (Dias et al., 2010). In renal tissue, maldevelopment of glomeruli and renal medulla was observed in fetuses from female rats injected ID-8 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily

with 62 μg/kg body weight (bw) for 10 days (Zhang et al., 2002). In addition, Nobre et al., 1999, Nobre et al., 2001 and Nobre et al., 2003 demonstrated the involvement of an inflammatory process on MCYST-derived nephrotoxicity in perfused rat kidneys. An increasing number of therapeutic agents has been recognized as nephrotoxic and a wide variety of chemical pollutants, along with environmental chemicals (mycotoxins and botanicals, for example), was already described causing renal toxicity (Goldstein and Schnellmann, 1996). However, although kidney seems to be an important affected organ, there is not much knowledge on the sublethal injurious effects of MCYST on renal physiology. Hence, this work assesses aspects of renal metabolism, oxidative stress and histopathology of Wistar rats exposed to a sublethal dose of purified MCYST-LR. Deionized water through Milli-Q resins (Millipore Corp., Marlborough, MA) was used to prepare all solutions.

The data obtained are in qualitative agreement with the results o

The data obtained are in qualitative agreement with the results of the previous field studies by Lehr et al. (1984a) and Elliot (1986). An example of the dependence of L in the downwind speed direction and film area S on time is presented in Figure 4. Data obtained at various wind speeds are shown in this figure by the symbols (°) – 1.6 m s− 1 – 3.3 m s− 1, (△) – 7.8 m s− 1, (⋄) – 11.7 m s− 1. The origin of the coordinates in Figure 4 corresponds to the moment when the vegetable oil was first spilt. As follows from Figure 4 the values of L at a fixed time point grow when the wind speed increases. selleck kinase inhibitor The same tendency is observed for areas of SF Metabolism inhibitor ( Figure 4b). We did not find an explicit dependence of the film slick axis l on wind speed. The values of the ratio L/l describing slick elongation at various times in the wind speed range from 9 to 11.7 m s− 1, from 6 to 9 m s− 1 and < 3.3 m s− 1 are shown in Figure 5 by the symbols (+), (⋄) and (°) respectively. The solid line shows the value of L/l = 1. As can be seen from Figure 5 at U < 3.6 m s− 1 the values of L/l change from 0.9 to 1.1. Thus under calm wind conditions SF is circular in shape. Film slick elongation

increases with a strengthening wind and at U ∼ 12 ms− 1 values of L/l are ∼ 18. Let us define the rate of semi-major axis growth in the downwind and upwind directions as udsp = ∂Ld/∂t and uupsp = ∂Lup/∂t respectively. Wind speed dependences of spreading rates in the downwind and upwind direction are presented in Figure 6 and denoted by the symbols (°) and (+) accordingly. Values of uupsp and udsp were calculated using all the data of each measurement and thus represent average values. Spreading rates at weak wind speeds varied from 0.01 to 0.02 m s− 1.

There is an increase of values of usp for moderate and strong winds. According to the results of the experiments, the observed spreading rate of the semi-major axis of the film at U = 12 m s− 1 is ∼ 4 times higher than the value typical of U = 1.6 m s− 1 – 3.6 m s− 1 (see Figure 6). Now we consider the growth of the surface film size under various wave conditions. The dependence of udsp on Hs is presented in Figure 7, where the symbols correspond Methane monooxygenase to measurements at various inverse wave ages α = U/Cp (Cp – wave phase velocity of the spectral peak): (°) – α = 0.9–1.3; (+) – α = 2–3. The case denoted by (•) relates to calm wind conditions and to the presence of a swell. As follows from Figure 7, no explicit dependence of the SF spreading rate on Hs for the whole set of points is observed. In contrast, the tendency of udsp to increase with increasing wave height for the obtained data set is visible when α = 0.9–1.3 and α = 2–3. At the same time spreading rates for the case denoted by (•) measured at Hs = 0.62 m and U = 1.

One of the advantages of our study was the large number of partic

One of the advantages of our study was the large number of participants in the study compared to previous researches, 84 patients with MS and 115 healthy controls. Most of the participants in our study were RRMS and SPMS, with a small percentage of PPMS. We recommend future studies to include other types of MS in the evaluation to check for differences between all types of the disease. As there is controversy between different studies assessing CCSVI criteria in MS patients and above-mentioned reports about IJV resection consequences, reconsidering the criteria may be an option. Another reason for these controversies might be differences

in techniques, instruments, anatomical site and patient’s position when performing sonography, which can be decreased by using the same method and mode of sonography. The person who performed sonographic evaluations was not blind to patient’s group in our Selleck Vincristine study. Blinding the assessors also can decrease the bias in the future studies. The authors would like to thank Dr. Jalil Kouhpayezadeh for his confidential

supports in statistical procedures and sample size calculation. Also we would like to appreciate the staff of Firoozgar Clinical Research Development Center (FCRDC) for their technical supports and helps. “
“Optic Neuritis (ONe) is a common feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) both in the early phase and during the disease course [1]. Ganetespib molecular weight MS and ONe are due to demyelination [2], but it has been postulated GPX6 that vascular mechanisms may have a role in MS and

ONe pathogenesis [3], [4], [5] and [6]. According to a recent hypothesis, cerebrospinal venous system alterations may contribute to the development of the disease and may drive its clinical course [7] and [8]. As a matter of fact, a correlation between the hemodynamic pattern of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and the clinical features in patients with MS has been described [9]. In particular, ONe at onset seems to be associated with Internal Jugular Veins (IJV) and/or of proximal Azygous Vein (AV) high grade stenosis, with consequent reflux in the deep cerebral veins. The blood then flows to the pterygoid plexus, and from there to the facial veins via the deep facial vein, to the cavernous sinus and to the ophthalmic veins. While changes in the hemodynamics of the eye’s arterial system, detected by Doppler ultrasound sonography, have been previously described in MS patients with both acute and chronic ONe [10], [11], [12] and [13], the venous flow has not been studied yet, as far as we know. Taking into account the peculiar environment of the arterial-venous system supplying and draining the Optic Nerve, we have considered it as a representative site for studying the relationship between veins and nervous parenchyma.

5b and c) Significant 21 6% and 31 8% reductions of internalizat

5b and c). Significant 21.6% and 31.8% reductions of internalization were observed in the presence of chlorpromazine in BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 and HBEpCs in SFGM, respectively, and 50.1% and 28.0% reductions were observed in the presence of indomethacin.

Moreover, we assayed cell growth inhibition by using the AB assay to confirm the influence of the endocytosis inhibitors. Both endocytosis inhibitors suppressed the cell growth inhibition mediated by MWNT-7 in BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 and HBEpCs in SFGM (Fig. 5d). Chlorpromazine suppressed MWNT-7 internalization and cell growth inhibition to a higher degree than did indomethacin in BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12, and the reverse pattern see more was observed for HBEpC in SFGM. BEAS-2B cells were originally find more established by infection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with an adenovirus 12-SV40 hybrid virus (Reddel et al.,

1988). Ke et al. reported that in BEAS-2B cells, most cells at clonal density undergo squamous differentiation when incubated in media containing more than 4% serum (Ke et al., 1988). In this study, BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 internalized MWNT-7 and demonstrated a 50% inhibitory concentration that was approximately 10-fold lower than that of BEAS-2B in SFGM, as shown in Fig. 2. This result supports our hypothesis that the culture medium affects cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B cells. Cellular uptake of MWNT-7 by differentiated BEAS-2B cells observed in the presence of fetal bovine serum was lost when the MWNT-7 treatment was performed in SFGM, which indicates that CNT uptake by BEAS-2B

GNA12 cells is not an original property and is induced by FBS (Fig. 2). Moreover, MWNT-7 was again internalized when BEAS-2B cells that had been cultured in SFGM and had thus lost their capacity for MWNT-7 uptake were again cultured in Ham’s F12. Normal HBEpCs in SFGM showed MWNT-7 internalization and growth inhibition identical to the observations in BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 (Fig. 1 and Fig. 3). We also used another line of HBEpCs purchased from a different company and obtained the same result (data not shown). These cells had an ellipsoid phenotype, although the HBEpCs appeared to be cuboidal, and BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 were squamous. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells in SFGM displayed a spindle shape that is typically observed when normal human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate (Zhang et al., 2011). These results cannot be attributed to the increased solubility of CNTs in serum; rather, they are based on functional changes with resulting morphological changes that occur in the presence of serum (Fig. 3). Cytokine secretion also showed a similar pattern in response to CNT internalization. BEAS-2B cells in Ham’s F12 and HBEpC showed increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 upon exposure to CNTs, although there was a large difference in IL-6 secretion between cell types. We did not detect secretion of IL-6 in untreated BEAS-2B cells in SFGM (Fig. 4a).

Para uma melhor acurácia na avaliação da deglutição, a VFS pode s

Para uma melhor acurácia na avaliação da deglutição, a VFS pode ser combinada à manometria faríngea5 and 38, possibilitando a investigação entre diferentes alterações, como exemplo, a relação entre alterações na abertura do esfíncter superior do esôfago, a redução da movimentação laríngea e a falta de contração em faringe, o que, em situação clínica, inviabilizaria a compreensão de qual mecanismo afetaria o outro39. Uma nova técnica de avaliação modificada pelo bário, a VFS digitalizada, é eficaz para quantificar as alterações da deglutição40. O profissional especialista em deglutição geralmente realiza e/ou acompanha Talazoparib ic50 a realização do exame, podendo detectar a consistência alimentar mais segura e apropriada

para ser utilizada pelo paciente6 and 41. A avaliação da efetividade de estratégias facilitadoras na reabilitação da disfagia, como mudanças posturais de cabeça, manobras compensatórias, modificações do bolo selleck screening library alimentar, dentre outras, podem ser testadas durante o procedimento30, 42 and 43, assim como os resultados

pós-terapêuticos44 and 45. A possibilidade do planejamento do tempo e custo do tratamento dos pacientes é outra vantagem da VFS46. Entretanto, nem sempre há um consenso entre os profissionais quanto ao uso da terminologia na descrição da fisiologia da deglutição e também nos achados do exame47. Em virtude disso, programas de análise computadorizada de imagem têm sido desenvolvidos com intuito

de aumentar a confiabilidade entre os examinadores na descrição dos componentes avaliados7. É recomendável que o tempo de exposição à radiação não exceda 2 minutos devido ao efeito biológico cumulativo em tecidos vivos47 and 48. Estudos apontaram, entretanto, que a gravidade da disfagia, além da pouca experiência Oxymatrine clínica do profissional, influencia significativamente o tempo de exposição à radiação49. Outras limitações da VFS seriam a impossibilidade, em alguns casos, em manter o paciente posicionado22, e a mistura do bário ao alimento, alterando as suas características naturais50. O exame videofluoroscópico é realizado em seriógrafos, angiógrafos e arcos em C. A disponibilidade de saída adicional no monitor destes equipamentos permite que as imagens fluoroscópicas sejam captadas e registradas em mídia magnética51. O registro deve ser feito em pelo menos 30 quadros por segundo. Fornece uma imagem bidimensional, associando o raio-X às diferentes densidades das estruturas avaliadas52. A utilização de um relógio acoplado ao equipamento é necessária, permitindo a mensuração das imagens em tempo real e possibilitando avaliar a duração dos eventos. É importante a proteção do profissional e paciente com avental de chumbo, protetor da glândula tireoide, óculos e luva com chumbo53. As imagens radiográficas são visualizadas em um monitor e a gravação é realizada simultaneamente em fita VHS ou em forma digital25.

22 and 30 Oral biofilm are one of the factors that contribute to

22 and 30 Oral biofilm are one of the factors that contribute to caries development. Natural substances that can optimize the biofilm reduction or eradication could act as adjuvant in therapy for patients with high risk to tooth decay. Casbane Diterpene showed, for the first time, antimicrobial effect on planktonic forms and biofilm of oral pathogens. These results are very important, because very few natural products are known to inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, some of which (including Streptococcus) are responsible for dental plaque. 36 So this natural compound can be considered as a promising molecule with potential for treatment against oral Vincristine mouse pathogens responsible for dental plaque.

Additional toxicological studies need to be performed to validate its applicability. The research had a financial support from CAPES, CnPq, FUNCAP and Brazilian foment institutions. There is no interest conflict. The saliva collection had a project approved by the Ethical Committee from Universidade

Estadual Vale do Acaraú-UVA, under the reference number 217-CONEP/CNS/MS. We gratefully acknowledge CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de pessoal de Ensino superior) and FUNCAP (Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento BGB324 cost Científico e Tecnológico) for their finacial support and Prof. E. R. Silveira (CENAUREMN-UFC) for obtaining the NMR spectra. “
“Dental wear is consequence of a multifactorial process involving three synergistic components: attrition (effect of tooth-to-tooth

contact), abrasion (friction against exogenous material, i.e. food items or tool use) and abfraction (microstructural loss of dentine in stressed areas), and normally is related to age progression. 1 Variations in the morphology and structure of the tooth, biomechanics, animal physiology or behaviour may influence the nature and extent of tooth wear among different species of animals. Factors such as crown morphology, enamel hypoplasia and lower resistance to wear, mastication mechanisms, consistency of diet and parafunctional Thalidomide uses of teeth are all potentially related to tooth wear.2 Tooth wear has been reported for captive or commercially valuable animals,3 and 4 early hominids and other primates5 and 6 and also fossil vertebrates.7 Numerous studies of tooth wear in wild mammals have been published in recent years, relating wear of dental tissues with life history aspects, feeding ecology, reproductive fitness, etc.8, 9, 10 and 11 However, the same is not true for those living in the aquatic environment. Dental wear has been reported in a few species of aquatic mammals, including sea lions, manatees and dolphins. Age progression, feeding strategies, behaviour and tooth mineral content were pointed out as factors influencing dental wear in pinnipeds.