suggested that DEPDC1B may play a role in the development of oral cancer. E pression of DEPDC1B modulates Rac1 cellular localization in rat embryonic fibroblasts DEPDC1B encodes a protein that may function as a Rho GTPase activating protein, according to its intrinsic primary protein sequences. therefore, it may play a role in regulating Rho GTPase activity. Many studies have in dicated sellekchem that Rho GTPases act as molecular switches by cyc ling between the inactive GDP bound form located in the cytoplasm and an active membrane associated GTP bound form. The activities of Rho family proteins are regulated by various proteins, such as guanine nucleotide e change fac tors, GAPs, and GDP dissociation inhibitors. We then characterized the biological effects of DEPDC1B on cultured cell systems.
We generated stable rat em Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries bryonic fibroblast, Rat6, and hepatoma Hep3B cells that e pressed DEPDC1B under tetracycline responsive transacti vator control. In this system, the addition of the tetracycline analog do ycycline induced the e pression of DEPDC1B. We then sought to determine whether DEPDC1B stimu lated the e pression or activities of these GTPases in cul tured cells by using western blotting. Total Rac1 and Rho levels remained the same in DEPDC1B overe pressing cells. We therefore concluded that DEPDC1B might not regulate the e pression of these Rho GTPases. Because DEPDC1B encodes a putative protein that could function as a regulator or be physically associated with Rho GTPases, we sought to determine whether DEPDC1B was able to bind to these Rho GTPases.
This interaction was investigated using in vivo coprecipitation. 293 T cells were transfected with plasmids that e pressed a FLAG tagged DEPDC1B. Protein comple Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries es were immunopre cipitated using antiFLAG antibodies. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Coprecipitated Rho GTPase proteins were detected by Rac1, CDC42, or RhoA antibodies in immunoblotting analysis. As illustrated in Figure 1E, Rac1 protein was detected Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in the FLAG DEPDC1B immunoprecipitated comple Dacomitinib es, indicating that DEPDC1B proteins may have physically interacted with the Rac1 protein. Therefore, DEPDC1B might be a poten tial RhoGEF and contribute to the activation of Rac1. To further address the question of whether DEPDC1B influences Rho GTPase activity, a detergent insoluble membrane fraction was prepared from DEPDC1B overe pressing cells, and membrane associated GTPases were determined using western blotting.
The level of membrane selleck products associated Rac1 increased in DEPDC1B overe pressing cells, whereas the cytosolic form of Rac1 decreased. The membrane associated and cytosolic forms of RhoA remained unchanged in DEPDC1B e pressing cells compared with parental cells. Therefore, overe pression of DEPDC1B in cells increased the level of membrane associated Rac1, which was dissociated from e pression levels of Rac1 protein. We detected the amount of GTP bound Rac1 in Rat6 and Hep3B DEPDC1B e pressing cells, and determined that DEPDC1B stimu lated GTP loading in Rac1. The e pressio