2 The three strains used during the study period were BCG-Russia

2 The three strains used during the study period were BCG-Russia (BCG-I strain from Moscow, Serum Institute of India, India);

BCG-Bulgaria (BCG-SL 222 Sofia strain, BB-NCIPD Ltd., Bulgaria); and BCG-Denmark (BCG-SSI 1331, Statens Seruminstitut, Denmark). Other vaccines administered ABT-199 solubility dmso were OPV (at 0, 6, 10 and 14 weeks); DPT, Hib and Hep B (at 6, 10 and 14 weeks); and measles (at 9 months). Cytokine responses were assessed by six-day whole blood culture and ELISA assay, as previously described [10]. Cytokine levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA (Beckton Dickinson, UK) after stimulation by crude culture filtrate protein, antigen 85 (cCFP, Ag 85; Colorado State University, USA), tetanus toxoid (TT; Statens Seruminstitut, Denmark) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA; Sigma, UK). CFP and Ag85 were used to assess mycobacteria-specific immune responses and PHA and TT to assess non-specific effects of BCG strains. IFN-γ

and IL-10 were analysed as representative of type 1 and regulatory activity respectively. Although IL-4 levels are central to the type 2 response, IL-5 and IL-13 are more detectable in supernatants and were therefore measured instead. Results were adjusted according to responses in unstimulated wells. To avoid time dependent effects of assay performance, the sequentially collected samples were tested in a randomised order. Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata/IC 11.1. Infants were grouped according to strain of BCG received. Characteristics of the three groups of infants and mothers were compared using Pearson’s www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-0325901.html chi-squared test for categorical variables

and the t-test for continuous variables. Cytokine levels below the threshold of detection were set to zero 3; distributions of cytokine results were highly skewed, a recognised phenomenon in immunological studies [10], [30] and [33]. Cytokine results were therefore transformed to log10(concentration + 1) before analysis. Mean cytokine responses were compared between strain groups using random effects linear regression, anti-logging the regression coefficients to obtain geometric mean ratios (GMRs). Random effects were used to account for potential between-lot variability (since several lots of found vaccine were administered within each BCG strain group). As some cytokine results remained skewed after log10 transformation, analyses were boostrapped [33] with 10,000 repeats to calculate bias-corrected accelerated confidence intervals. Cytokine responses of infants with and without a BCG scar were compared using the same methods but without random effects (being independent of potential between-lot variability). Odds ratios for associations between BCG strain and scar presence were calculated through random effects logistic regression. BCG scar sizes were compared across strain groups through linear regression.

The longer exposure of the musculoskeletal system to running may

The longer exposure of the musculoskeletal system to running may explain this association. Any runner executes around 50 to 70 strides per minute and each ground contact generates loads ranging from 3 to 8 times the total body weight through the lower limbs (Macera et al 1989). The application of this load for long periods of time accumulated over years of running training could explain the association between running experience and presence of musculoskeletal pain in our study cohort. We also observed a statistically significant difference in the weekly running distance between respondents with and without pain, which is consistent with previous studies (Fredericson and Misra 2007, Macera

et al 1989, Walter et al 1989). However,

the distribution of the data suggests that it is not the average weekly Everolimus cell line running distance that is important, but whether the distance is above a certain threshold, which is also consistent with other studies (Fredericson and Misra 2007, Macera et al 1989). We did not observe a significant difference in the number of training sessions per week between respondents with and without pain, which is consistent with the findings of van Middelkoop and colleagues (2008). We selleckchem are aware of some limitations of our study and we suggest that our findings should be interpreted cautiously. First, although we recruited a representative sample, our analysis is purely cross-sectional and no causation should be interpreted from our study. We suggest that more prospective, longitudinal studies should be performed in the future. Second, due to feasibility issues, we collected all information from the respondents through self-report questionnaires, with no clinical assessment Astemizole being performed. We understand that the athletes could interpret the presence of pain in different ways, and a clinical assessment would supplement

the data collected by the questionnaires. Nevertheless we do believe that the data and our subsequent analyses do give a reasonable and useful indication of the current presence of running-related musculoskeletal pain in recreational athletes who are competing in a running event. This study presents important information on the issue of sports participation despite the presence of pain. To our knowledge, there is no study on the effects of early identification of overuse injuries and possible physiotherapy interventions for this problem. Therefore studies on this topic are needed urgently. We also suggest that studies should be performed to investigate the relationship between the presence of pain and actual disability (or performance) in this population. Finally, qualitative studies would clarify why amateur runners commonly decide to participate in competitions despite their pain. The prevalence of recreational runners competing in a race with musculoskeletal pain is high.

Interventions: The PRT program was designed according to the Amer

Interventions: The PRT program was designed according to the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations, and consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions with a load corresponding to 80% of the 1-repetition

maximum with 1–2 minutes of rest between the sets. The exercises (leg press, chest press, leg extension, seated rowing, leg curl, triceps extension, standing calf raises, and bicep curl) were performed twice a week for 24 weeks on a multi-stack machine in a community gym. The control group sessions included 10 minutes Adriamycin of low-intensity ROM exercises twice weekly at home, considered as insufficient intensity to elicit muscle hypertrophy. Outcome measures: The outcomes were collected immediately following the training period and included: total and regional lean body mass (LBM), maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor strength at 90° flexion (KES), objective physical function

measures (30-second arm curl, 30-second chair stand, and 50-foot walking) and patient-reported function (The Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire). Results: 13 participants (72%) in the PRT group and 15 (83%) in the control group completed Cyclopamine the study. Participants in the PRT group completed on average 73% of the sessions, and participants in the control group completed on average 54% of the sessions. At baseline, the mean (SD) total LBM in the PRT group was 37.2 (3.9) kg compared to 40.4 (8.9) kg in the control group. PRT increased total LBM by 1.5 (1.5) kg compared to a slight decrease in the control group (p = 0.006 for between group difference). KES and objective physical function CYTH4 measures increased between 17% and 119% in the PRT grouped compared to

no change in the control group (p values ≤ 0.027 for between group differences). Self reported function remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: Progressive resistance training can restore the muscle mass and the functional capacity in patients with established, stable RA. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with impaired physical function, loss of lean body mass, adiposity, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the present study focusing on the efficacy of Progressive Resistance Training (PRT) in restoring muscle mass in patients with RA is of utmost importance, both for the patients and for health care providers. The exercise intervention followed current guidelines for PRT from the American College of Sports Medicine (2009). To our knowledge, this is the first study of an isolated PRT intervention in RA patients. The present study demonstrated that PRT is effective in restoring muscle mass and physical function in RA patients with low degree of disability (function class I and II). From a clinical perspective the PRT group was supervised during each training session.

2D) The adjuvant activity of the cleavage product NSP4(112–175)

2D). The adjuvant activity of the cleavage product NSP4(112–175) was tested using KLH. Similar to full-length NSP4, either 10 μg or 20 μg of the cleavage product NSP4(112–175) enhanced KLH-specific serum IgG (5-fold) and fecal IgA (30-fold) (Fig. 3A and B) to levels higher than those observed in mice that received KLH alone (p < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U). As both doses induced equivalent antibody titers we chose the lowest dose to perform the subsequent experiments. These data indicate that the adjuvant domain of this protein is located in the C-terminus of NSP4 and that 10 μg of the cleavage product is optimal to elicit this effect. To test whether NSP4 from other rotavirus strains besides

the simian SA11 Cl3 NSP4 can also function as adjuvants, we tested the adjuvant activity of NSP4 from Veliparib purchase both a virulent and tissue culture-attenuated pair of porcine

rotavirus strains, OSU-v and OSU-a, respectively. As shown in Fig. 4, both OSU-a (GMT = 14,703) and OSU-v (GMT = 14,703) NSP4 induced an enhanced (8-fold increase) TT-specific serum, but not fecal, antibody response compared to the group receiving TT antigen alone. In addition, the levels of antibody induced by OSU-a and OSU-v NSP4 were similar to that induced by SA11 Cl3 NSP4. We next determined if NSP4, localized within a VLP, retained adjuvant activity. NSP4(112–175) was genetically fused to the inner core protein VP2 and when co-expressed with VP6 in insect cells VLPs (NSP4-2/6) were produced which were morphologically

indistinct from 2/6 VLP (Fig. 5A). Significantly increased (12-fold) TT-specific serum antibody was induced Everolimus in the group of mice that received NSP4-2/6 intranasally with TT (GMT = 1838) compared to the TT alone group (GMT = 159) (Fig. 5B). In addition, despite the inability of the soluble NSP4 to enhance humoral response against TT, NSP4 internalized within 2/6-VLPs elicited significantly increased fecal IgA levels (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the co-administered antigen ( Fig. 5C). This adjuvant effect was due to the presence of NSP4 since 2/6 VLPs given with TT did not increase antigen-specific antibody responses and the level of antibody was comparable to the group receiving ADAMTS5 TT alone In this study we demonstrated the mucosal adjuvant activity of rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 using model antigens. Full-length NSP4 from the SA11 rotavirus strain as well as a cleavage product NSP4 (112–175) were able to function as intranasal adjuvants and enhanced both serum and mucosal antibody responses specific to the co-administered antigen. In addition, an attenuated NSP4 from an avirulent porcine OSU-a rotavirus as well as NSP4 delivered inside a rotavirus VLP can efficiently enhance antigen-specific antibody responses. The adjuvant property of NSP4 varied depending upon the co-administered antigen suggesting that the outcome of adjuvanticity is affected by the nature of the antigen tested.

6 The bark of C decandra is used for coloring (dye) the fishing

6 The bark of C. decandra is used for coloring (dye) the fishing nets. An antimicrobial activity on phytopathogenic fungi was studied using hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of C. decandra, a mangrove plant. 7 The phytopathogenic fungi Pythium aphanidermatum causes damping-off in majority of solanaceous crops. Rhizoctonia solani (Sheath blight and damping-off) and Pyricularia oryzae (Rice blast) are important phytopathogens. They mainly infect rice crops and causes serious damages. Fusarium oxysporum, a soil born fungus

shows infections in chilli and rice crops. All these phytopathogenic fungi cause severe diseases in crop varieties. The chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and ethanol leaf extracts PD173074 of C. decandra showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activity. 8 The phytochemical constituents of the C. decandra whole plant composed with diterpenoids, triterpenoids, Cilengitide mouse phenolic compounds, and steroids. Terpenoids are the predominant compounds in the Ceriops plants and exhibited antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antitumor and larvicidal activities. Forty-three diterpenes and twenty-nine triterpenes

have been reported from embryos, fruits, hypocotyls, roots, stems, and twigs of C. decandra. 9 The root extracts of C. decandra resulted in the isolation of new diterpenoids, ceriopsins A–D and ceriopsins F and G. 10 and 11 In India Spodoptera litura is a notorious pest on tobacco and for the last and 30 years, a major pest to other crops like cotton, groundnut and mung bean. It is very difficult to control the wide spreading of this pest through insecticides because of the development of drug resistance; hence other alternative eco friendly pest management methods are required to control the wide spreading infections due to pests. A. aegypti mosquito is the major vector of dengue fever disease. Search

for larvicidal active compound(s) is one of the several attempts to find effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. The present study was aimed to investigate the potent phytochemical constituents of C. decandra leaf organic solvent extracts were determined by GC–MS and the extracts were subsequently tested for antifungal & larvicidal activities. Fresh leaves of C. decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou (Rhizophoraceae) were collected from Kandikuppa Mangrove forest area, which was extended from Coringa Mangrove wetland Forest, up to Konaseema deltaic zone through Godavari estuarine located at 16° 35′ 12.89″ N and 82° 16′ 17.03″ E, of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The plant material was identified taxonomically and a specimen voucher was preserved in the Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University. The plant material was dried under shade with occasional shifting and then powdered with a mechanical grinder and stored in an airtight container.

However, it still has some minor limitations: reliance on documen

However, it still has some minor limitations: reliance on documentation of a diagnosis of asthma in medical

records with no confirmatory assessment, and lack of blinding of most of the parties involved. However, the study did blind the data analysts, for whom blinding has only recently been recommended (Kolahi and Abrishami 2009). The benefits of breathing training in asthma appear clinically worthwhile despite the probable absence of an effect on the underlying pathophysiology. Physiotherapists should consider using this intervention in appropriate patients. “
“Summary of: van Linschoten R, van Middelkoop M, Berger MY, Heintjes EM, Verhaar JAN, Willemsen SP, et al (2009) Supervised exercise versus usual care for patellofemoral pain check details syndrome: an open label randomised controlled trial. BMJ 339: b4074. [Prepared by Julia Hush, CAP Editor.] Question: Does supervised

exercise therapy improve pain, function, and recovery more than usual care for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome? Design: Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation. Setting: General and sports medicine practices in The Netherlands. Patients: Patients aged 14 to 40 with patellofemoral pain for between 2 months and 2 years were recruited as they consulted a general practitioner or sports physician for the pain. Knee MK0683 osteoarthritis, patellar tendinopathy, and Osgood- Schlatter disease were exclusion criteria. 131 patients were randomised into exercise therapy (n = 65) and control (n = 66) groups with stratification by age and recruiting physician. Interventions: The intervention group received a 6-week progressive exercise program that was individually tailored. This group was instructed to exercise 25 minutes daily for 3 months and was supervised by a physiotherapist for 9 sessions over 6 weeks. The next control group was advised to rest during periods of pain and to refrain from pain-provoking activities. Both groups received written information and advice about their condition, appropriate analgesia, and activity guidelines and daily isometric quadriceps exercises. Outcomes: Primary outcomes measured at 3 and 12 months were

perceived recovery (7-point Likert scale), function (0–100 point Kujala patellofemoral score), and pain at rest and with activity (0–10 point numerical rating scale). Results: After 3 months, the exercise group had less pain at rest (−1.1, 95% CI −1.9 to-0.2), less pain on activity (−1.0, 95% CI −1.9 to −0.1), and improved function (4.9, 95% CI 0.1 to 9.7), compared with usual care. At 12 months the exercise group had less pain at rest (−1.3, 95% CI −2.2 to −0.4), less pain on activity (−1.2, 95% CI −2.2 to −0.2), and improved function (4.5, 95% CI −0.7 to 9.8). A higher proportion of patients in the exercise group than in the control group reported recovery (42% v 35% at 3 months and 62% v 51% at 12 months), although the differences were not statistically significant.

This level of significance was chosen to decrease the likelihood

This level of significance was chosen to decrease the likelihood of overlooking potential prognostic factors. Where there was a moderate or strong correlation (Pearson’s r > 0.4) between individual predictor variables, the variable with the best psychometric properties or ease of clinical application was selected.

The selected predictor variables were assessed using multivariate stepwise regression to identify the independent prognostic variables. One hundred and eighty-one participants were recruited between October Baf-A1 2006 and June 2008 from 11 primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. Seven physiotherapists recruited 125 participants and five chiropractors recruited 56 participants. Of the 237 patients screened, 46 did not meet the eligibility criteria and 10 declined to participate. Three participants did not complete the course of four treatments. All participants completed baseline assessments with no missing data. Five participants withdrew from the study and were censored at the last date of data collection. Completeness of follow-up (Clark et al 2002)

was 96% of potential person-time for the time-to-recovery predictive model. Data were included from 176 (97%) participants for the predictive model for disability at 3 months. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 1. The mean age of participants was 38.8 (SD 10.7) years. Pain intensity at baseline was 6.1 (SD 2.0) with the average duration of neck pain 19.5 Everolimus ic50 (SD 20.1) days. The mean disability score was 15.7 (SD 7.4). Neck pain was frequently through accompanied by concomitant symptoms, most commonly upper limb pain (n = 144, 80%), headache (n = 117, 65%) and upper back pain (n = 115, 64%). One-hundred and fourteen participants (63%) had a past history of neck pain. Ninety percent of participants rated their general health as ‘good’ or better, and fewer than 10% were smokers. SF-12 Physical Component Score 43.5 (SD 8.2) and

Mental Component Scores 47.3 (SD 10.6) were less than one standard deviation from normal population values. Ninety-five participants (52%) experienced full recovery from neck pain during the 3-month follow-up period. The median time from commencement of treatment to recovery of pain was 45 days. Of those who recovered, 52 (55%) recovered within 3 weeks and 71 (75%) recovered within 4 weeks of commencing treatment (Figure 1A). The mean pain score for all participants decreased from 6.1 (SD 2.0) at baseline to 2.5 (SD 2.1) after 2 weeks of treatment, and to 1.5 (SD 1.8) at 3-month follow-up (Figure 2). Neck pain intensity in those participants who remained symptomatic (ie, excluding those who had recovered) showed rapid improvement with a mean pain score of 3.1 (SD 1.9) at 2 weeks (n = 143) and a mean pain score of 2.8 (SD 1.6) at 12 weeks (n = 77). The distribution of pain scores at the 3-month follow-up was skewed, with 153 (86%) participants rating residual pain as ≤3 out of 10 (Figure 3).

g increasing condom use or reducing partner numbers); (ii) incre

g. increasing condom use or reducing partner numbers); (ii) increased screening, treatment I-BET-762 order and contact tracing/partner notification; (iii) the development of new biomedical prevention or therapeutic technologies (such as vaccines) (see review by Gottlieb et al. in this issue) [15]. However, it is not feasible to implement behaviour change campaigns to a sufficient scale and efficacy to result in population-level impacts.

Since a Chlamydia vaccine is not currently available, the only viable public health strategy is the scale-up of screening for chlamydial infection coupled with the administration of a course of antibiotics and counselling or follow up for partner notification or contact tracing and also rescreening. Chlamydia screening may be cost-effective and partner notification is an effective adjunct, with treatment using azithromycin evaluated to be cost-effective [16].

Screening is generally considered to be acceptable and feasible among most target populations [17] and [18]. However, uptake is likely to be the limiting factor, SCH727965 concentration even in ideal study conditions with specific invitations for screening, with less than 45% of populations at risk of Chlamydia being routinely screened [18], [19], [20], [21] and [22]. Modelling studies have indicated that at least 45–60% screening levels are required to have noticeable epidemiological impacts [22], [23], [24] and [25] and these coverage levels, or greater, must be sustained at least annually, indefinitely. It is

unlikely Dipeptidyl peptidase that the coverage and frequency of screening and treatment interventions could reach sufficiently high levels to result in epidemic declines approaching elimination. Not only are there issues of limited coverage and frequency which reduces effectiveness, but treatment efficacy is not perfect [26], [27] and [28], drug resistance is possible, re-infection is extremely common, [29] and [30] and there is no end to the need to continue regular rescreening. In addition, despite continued improvements in diagnostic and screening procedures for Chlamydia, and although antibiotics like azithromycin are available to treat infections, notifications of infections continues to increase. Antibiotic treatment of individuals may also increase susceptibility to re-infection, which is most likely due to interrupting the natural course of protective chlamydial immunity [31]. Recently, data from an in vivo study reported that not only were T-helper (Th)1 immune responses against C. trachomatis in individual women slow to develop, but that these responses were also altered by treatment with ceftriaxone and azithromycin [32]. Taken together, these facts suggest that the current main line of defence against chlamydial infections (i.e.

The economical loss from PD is a result of several factors includ

The economical loss from PD is a result of several factors including mortality of infected fish, reduced growth of survivors and reduced quality of the fillet [4]. PD learn more is also a welfare problem, since large parts of the fish that are put to sea in Norway become infected. The genome of SAV is a capped and polyadenylated single-stranded RNA molecule with two open reading frames, encoding non-structural and structural polyproteins [2]. A neutralizing epitope

has been mapped to the E2 protein, which functions in receptor-binding in other alphaviruses [5]. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial coding region of E2 have suggested four distinct clades to exist. These clades have been divided into six genetic subtypes, SAV1-6 [6]. The phenotypic consequences of these genetic differences are not known. The phylogeographic structure of SAV suggests that several independent epizootics of PD are currently occurring in European PD-0332991 chemical structure aquaculture. Most strains from Norway belong to subtype 3 and constitute a distinct epizootic compared to outbreaks in other parts of Europe where subtypes 1, 2, 4–6 have been reported

[6], [7], [8] and [9]. Although wild reservoirs and transmission patterns of SAV are largely unknown, viral RNA has been detected in the water during viraemia, and cohabitant fish are readily infected [1] and [10]. It therefore appears likely that the virus transmits by water contact Thymidine kinase once it has entered a farm. Following infection, viral RNA

can be detected in most organs of the fish, at least during viraemia. Heart tissues contain the highest levels of viral RNA [3] and [11]. Tissue lesions have been reported primarily from exocrine pancreas, the heart and skeletal muscle. Lesions in brain and kidney are also found sporadically [3]. The infection may lead to mortality and highly variable mortality rates have been reported from field outbreaks [12] and [13]. The reason for the variations in mortality rates is not yet understood, but is likely to be a combination of virulence differences among strains of SAV, co-infections with other pathogens and environmental factors. It is possible to obtain immunity against SAV and several vaccine concepts have been explored [14], [15], [16] and [17]. An inactivated whole-virus vaccine based on the Irish type-strain of SAV, F93-125 (subtype 1), has been commercially available since 2002. Although the industry has vaccinated most fish that are put to sea in the region of Norway where SAV3 is regarded to be enzootic, PD has remained as one of the major disease problems [13]. We have developed an inactivated vaccine based on a strain of SAV subtype 3 – ALV405. Here we evaluate the efficacy and safety of this vaccine, and demonstrate that it could be an attractive new tool for controlling SAV epizootics.

Student’s t-test was employed to determine the significance of di

Student’s t-test was employed to determine the significance of differences between the studied groups. p values <0.05 (*) were

considered to be significant. DNA fragments encoding bfpA (600 bp) and intimin (eae388–667) (840 bp), were amplified by PCR from EPEC (E2348/69) and ligated into the KpnI and BamHI sites of the pMIP12 vector under the control of the pblaF* promoter www.selleckchem.com/products/sotrastaurin-aeb071.html ( Supplementary Figure); the constructs were named pMH12-bfpA and pMH12-intimin, respectively. The plasmids were electroporated into BCG and Smeg, and the resulting strains were examined for BfpA and intimin expression. Expression of both bfpA and intimin (eae) was confirmed by immunoblotting bacterial whole-cell extracts using anti-BfpA or anti-intimin antisera. As observed in Fig. 1A and B, the antisera specifically recognized bands of approximately 19.5 and 34 kDa, corresponding to BfpA and intimin, respectively, from both rBCG and rSmeg strains. No proteins were recognized by the antisera in whole-cell lysates from BCG or Smeg controls without the plasmid vectors ( Fig. 1A and B). C57BL/6 mice were immunized by oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection with 4 doses of 1 × 108 CFU in 200 μL of rBCG-bfpA, rSmeg-bfpA, rBCG-intimin or rSmeg-intimin at two-week intervals. As a mucosal adjuvant, SBA-15 BMN 673 purchase silica was used. Control mice were immunized with

non-recombinant BCG or Smeg or with PBS following the same immunization schedule. A significantly higher level of anti-BfpA and anti-intimin IgA or IgG antibodies was observed in

both the feces and serum of mice immunized with rBCG or rSmeg as compared with that of serum collected in the groups that received non-recombinant BCG or Smeg or PBS (p < 0.001) ( Fig. 2A and B). Pre-immune sera and feces that were collected and pooled were evaluated, and presented no reactivity to BfpA or intimin (data not shown), suggesting the absence of anti-BfpA or anti-intimin antibodies prior to immunization. Our analysis of serum IgG subclass too responses also revealed that mice subjected to intraperitoneal immunization predominantly developed an IgG2a response, indicating a Th1-type cell response ( Fig. 2C). To evaluate the involvement of Th1-type cells on the immune responses induced by recombinant BCG-bfpA, BCG-intimin, Smeg-bfpA and Smeg-intimin, spleen cells were recovered 15 days after the final immunization and treated in vitro with the corresponding recombinant protein expressed in the vaccine used. We assayed the supernatants for the presence of the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5. As is shown in Fig. 2A–C, anti-BfpA and anti-intimin, respectively, IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in feces and serum. Immunization with recombinant vaccine expressing BfpA induced higher production of IFN-γ, in vitro, by spleen cells (Fig. 3).