In addition, both doses of SLD were found to decrease the levels of MPO and LPO significantly when compared to the CLP group (P < 0·05). Furthermore, 20-mg/kg sildenafil treatment in the sham-operated rats improved the biochemical status of their lungs. To explore the effects of anti-oxidant defences on the sepsis process, the anti-oxidant levels (SOD and GSH) were evaluated in all kidney tissues. The levels of oxidant
parameters, such as lipid peroxidation levels and MPO enzymatic activity, were also evaluated in all kidney tissues. The results, presented Romidepsin mw in Table 2, show that SOD activity decreased but the GSH levels increased in the CLP-induced sepsis group. The 10- and 20-mg/kg doses of SLD were found to have an increasing effect on SOD activity GS-1101 nmr when the SLD-treated groups were compared to the CLP control group. Administration of SLD also increased the levels of GSH significantly when the SLD-treated groups were compared to both the sham-operated and the CLP groups (P < 0·05). In the kidney tissues of the CLP-induced
septic rats, MPO activity decreased significantly compared to the sham group. Administration of SLD to the CLP-operated rats and the sham-operated rats decreased MPO activity significantly. The lowest MPO activity was found in the sham-operated rats that were treated with 20 mg/kg SLD. Conversely, the CLP operation increased the level of LPO in kidney tissue when compared to the sham operation. Furthermore, 20-mg/kg sildenafil treatment in the sham-operated rats improved the biochemical status of their kidneys. Semiquantitative data analysis of the inflammation score and histopathological
evaluation Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK is summarized in Table 3. According to our analysis, significant differences were found in binary comparisons between the sepsis group and the other groups, with the exception of the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg group, in terms of inflammation scores. As seen in Table 3, the mean inflammation score in the CLP group was 2·3, in the CLP + sildenafil 20 mg group it was 1·3 and in the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg group it was 2·1. In evaluating the lung tissues in the sham group, vascular structures, such as the pulmonary artery branch, arterioles, terminal bronchioles, interstitium and alveoli, all had a normal appearance (Fig. 1a–d). In addition, in Clara cells in the terminal bronchiole, type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes in the alveolus were observed to be normal in high-magnification H&E-stained sections (Fig. 1b,c). In the CLP group, inflammation and haemorrhage in the interstitial area were conspicuous (Fig. 2a,d). The inflammation was composed of many lymphocytes and a few eosinophils (Fig. 2d). Inflammation was also seen in both the lamina propria of the terminal bronchioles and the wall of the pulmonary artery (Fig. 2a,c,d). The terminal bronchiole had erythrocytes and inflammatory cells in its lamina (Fig.