The high prevalence of tooth agenesis outside the cleft area migh

The high prevalence of tooth agenesis outside the cleft area might be attributed to the different ethnic and/or genetic backgrounds of the groups examined. The term “patterns” of tooth agenesis in UCLP

patients is often used in the dental literature. These patterns mostly referred to maxillary laterals incisors and/or maxillary first and second premolars,32 and 33 and not to tooth agenesis patterns of the whole mouth. this website To our knowledge, the present study is the second one to analyse “symmetry and combinations of hypodontia in UCPL patients” in the whole mouth.15 It has been suggested previously that the high prevalence of tooth agenesis outside the cleft area might point to common developmental or interacting genetic pathways.29, 34, 35, 36 and 37 A precise description of dental subphenotypes in OFCs would be useful for identifying genes responsible for OFC and tooth agenesis.37 In addition, the genes that contribute to laterality of clefts, may result in alternate phenotypes for dental anomalies. 37 If the mechanism of these pathways could be unravelled, it may create opportunities to find targets for compounds that could prevent the disruption of these interacting pathways. There is no source of funding for selleck chemicals our research. There is no conflicts of interests. Not required Theodosia N.

Bartzela: data collection, data interpretation, manuscript preparation. Carine Carels: data interpretation related to genetics, manuscript preparation. Ewald M. Bronkhorst: statistical analysis and data interpretation. Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman: data interpretation, manuscript preparation. “
“Dentinogenesis is the dentine formation process in which the

odontoblasts are responsible for the organic matrix synthesis, and posterior mineral crystal deposition in this matrix. This pattern of formation is similar to that of bone, another mineralized connective tissue. For both mineralized tissues, it is of fundamental importance understanding how the ions constituting the inorganic phase are transported from the circulation to the site of mineral formation and how this transport is regulated.1 Calcium is an essential ion for the composition of the mineral next crystals during dentinogenesis. Changes in the serum calcium levels lead to structural alterations of the forming dentine.2, 3, 4 and 5 Calcium metabolism is regulated mainly by parathyroid hormone (PTH), and studies have been performed to understand how PTH influences the mineralization process.6, 7 and 8 The overall function of endogenous PTH, an 84-amino acid peptide secreted by the parathyroid glands, is to maintain normal extracellular calcium levels by enhancing gastrointestinal calcium absorption, renal tubular calcium and phosphate resorption, and osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby releasing calcium from the skeleton.9 The PTH primary biological activity is similar to PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein), and its activity resides mainly within the 1–34 N-terminal fragment.

In a population that consumes folic acid supplements or has a die

In a population that consumes folic acid supplements or has a diet fortified with this vitamin, the upper reference limit of Hcy is usually 20% to 25% lower than in unfortified populations. A study investigating the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD), serum folate, and cobalamin should also be analyzed [11]. The effectiveness of folic acid fortification in improving folate status has already been shown to be quite striking, with a dramatic increase learn more in blood measurements of folate and a substantial decrease in plasma Hcy levels in the United States [12]. In

Brazil, no study has been conducted comparing the plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the fortification of flour with folic acid in women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus, the hypothesis of this research is that the fortification of flour with folic acid contributes to the reduction of plasma Hcy levels. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the effect of the consumption of corn and wheat flours fortified with

folic acid on Hcy levels and other biomarkers in women by a cross-sectional study covering 2 periods, prefortification and postfortification in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which participants were recruited from 2 different stages: prefortification (2002-2003) and postfortification (2008-2009) of flours with folic acid. The study was performed with patients of the Nutritional Ambulatory Care of the Venetoclax molecular weight Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where overweight patients with chronic diseases were being treated. They belonged to the lowest social classes and were residents in several cities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Only women with MS were selected for this study because they surpassed men in rates of cardiovascular mortality in Brazil. The 38 volunteers from the prefortification stage were selected from a study with 93 individuals, which were designed to assess the factors associated with Hcy levels in individuals with and without MS [13]. From this study, only women who met the inclusion criteria were included in this

research. The 55 volunteers from the postfortification stage were selected from a study of 133 women. This study was designed to assess the association between concentrations of Hcy and biomarkers BCKDHA of MS. Included were those who filled out a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) [14]; the others were excluded. In both studies, after the screening, the explanation of the research was given to the patients who met the eligibility criteria. They signed a statement of consent and filled out a general information questionnaire. Subsequently, blood draw and anthropometric measurements were performed. Lastly, the FFQ was applied. Inclusion criteria were the following: women nutritionally diagnosed as overweight, obesity classes 1 and 2, with body mass index (BMI) from 25.0 to 39.

At the time of sacrifice, intestinal sections were collected and

At the time of sacrifice, intestinal sections were collected and flushed with ice-cold phosphate buffered saline. The duodenal and jejunal sections were cut longitudinally, and the epithelium was scraped using disposable sterile plastic spatulas (VWR International) into vials containing ~ 1 ml of TRIzol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and snap-frozen

in liquid nitrogen. The samples were stored at − 80 °C and shipped overnight on Selleck BTK inhibitor dry ice to Michigan State University for gene expression analysis. All procedures were carried out with the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Southern Research Institute. Frozen intestinal epithelial samples were homogenized using a Mixer Mill 300 tissue homogenizer (Retsch, Germany). Total RNA was isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol with an additional acid phenol:chloroform extraction. Isolated RNA was resuspended in RNA storage solution (Ambion Inc., Austin, TX), quantified (A260), and quality was assessed by evaluation of the A260/A280 ratio and by visual inspection of 1 μg total RNA on a denaturing gel. Dose-dependent changes in gene expression were examined using mouse 4 × 44 K Agilent whole-genome

oligonucleotide microarrays (version 1, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA). Treated samples were co-hybridized with vehicle controls to individual arrays according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Agilent Manual: G4140-90050 v. 5.0.1). All hybridizations were performed with three independent Ganetespib biological replicates for treated and control tissues (i.e., RNA samples were not pooled) and independent labeling of each sample (Cy3 and Cy5, including dye swap) for each treatment group at each time point (8 and 91 days). Microarray slides were scanned at 532 nm (Cy3) and 635 nm (Cy5) on a GenePix 4000B scanner (Molecular Devices, Union City, CA). Images were analyzed for feature and background intensities using GenePix Pro 6.0 software (Molecular Devices). All data passed our laboratory quality assurance protocol (Burgoon et al., 2005) and were deposited in TIMS dbZach data management system (Burgoon and Zacharewski, 2007). Microarray

experimental design is shown in Supplementary Fig. S1. Microarray data were normalized using a semi-parametric approach (Eckel et al., 2005). The posterior probabilities were Dichloromethane dehalogenase calculated using an empirical Bayes method based on a per gene and dose basis using model-based t-values ( Eckel et al., 2004). Unless stated otherwise, gene expression data were ranked and prioritized using |fold change| > 1.5 and statistical P1(t) value > 0.999 criteria to identify differentially expressed genes. P1(t) values represent the posterior probability of gene activity on a per gene and treatment dose basis using the model-based t-value ( Eckel et al., 2004). Annotation and functional categorization of differentially regulated genes was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) (Dennis et al.

In a certain way this behavior was already expected, since guar g

In a certain way this behavior was already expected, since guar gum does not form a gel in solution, being used as a thickener and stabilizer (Dziezak, 1991). On the other hand, as the concentration of the polyols increased

in the solution, the dependence of the G′ moduli on the frequency decreased, indicating greater structuring of the systems. The addition of polyols decreased the values for the phase angle as compared to the values obtained with the pure gum (G05 and G1), suggesting an increase in system elasticity, which behavior became less similar to that of a liquid and closer to that of a gel. The increase in system structuring was not proportional to the gum/polyol concentrations in the system. The solutions containing 0.5 g/100 g guar gum, pure or with 10 g/100 g of any of the polyols, presented δ > 1, which is characteristic of a dilute solution. With the addition of 40 g/100 g of any of the polyols, there

was a change to δ < 1, although Torin 1 the curves corresponding to the G05 systems were less dependent on frequency than those obtained with samples of G1. This is further evidence that the addition of 40 g/100 g polyol to solutions that already contain 1 g/100 g hydrocolloid creates a competitive effect for the water available in the system, resulting in less structured systems. The systems containing G1, pure and with polyols, showed liquid-like behavior at low frequencies (G″ > G′) and solid-liked behavior (G′ > G″) at higher frequencies, passing through a cross-over (G′ = G″). PD 332991 The cross-over moves to lower frequencies with increasing system concentration, indicating the behavior of a highly concentrated solution, as shown in Fig. 3 for solutions of guar gum added with maltitol. Chenlo et al. (2010) reported similar results to guar gum. Dynamic rheological measurements

were made by Evageliou, Kasapis, and Hember (1998), in systems composed of 0.5 g/100 g k-carrageen and high glucose syrup concentrations at a temperature of 5 °C, and the addition of 60 g/100 g glucose syrup resulted in an increase in system firmness. Doyle, Giannouli, Martin, Brooks, and Morris (2006), investigated the effect of high sorbitol concentrations (40–60 g/100 g) in the cryo-gelatinization of galactomannan (1 g/100 g). The gel strength showed an increase and subsequent reduction Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase with increasing polyol concentration, the maximum strength being attained with 50 g/100 g sorbitol. Comparing Fig. 2a and b, it can be seen that the values reached for G′ were slightly higher for maltitol than for sorbitol. The systems containing xylitol presented results very similar to those obtained with sorbitol, the corresponding data being shown in Fig. 4, which also shows the effect of freezing/thawing on the solutions. The dependence of G′ and G″ on the frequency can be described by a power law-type equation, as shown in equations (3) and (4) ( Kim & Yoo, 2006; Rao, 1999; Wang et al.

3 Hz) through a pair of Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the upper

3 Hz) through a pair of Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the upper region of the right ventricle. Mechanical activity was investigated by measuring developed left ventricular isovolumic systolic pressure (LVISP). To evaluate contractility the rate of rise of LVISP (dP/dt) was used because it is highly sensitive to changes in contractility ( Gleason and Braunwald, 1962). These parameters were measured

with a pressure transducer connected to an amplifier (MP 100 Biopac Systems: Inc.; CA) and recorded with a data acquisition click here system (BIOPAC MP100WSW, including a software Acqknowledge III, Goleta, CA). The isovolumic pressure derivative (dP/dt) was gotten offline by the same software (digital filter Blackman −61 dB, 25 KHz of cut frequency and sample rate of 1000/s). All measurements began 30 min after mounting to allow the beating preparation to adapt to the in vitro conditions. The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was continuously registered by connecting a pressure transducer (TDS 104A) to the inflow of the aortic pressure tube. Since coronary flow was kept constant (10 mL/min),

changes of the CPP were dependent on changes of coronary resistance. Protocols were performed beginning with a constant diastolic pressure of 5 mm Hg by adjusting the volume of the balloon. Ventricular function curves were obtained by measuring the left ventricular isovolumic systolic pressure (LVISP) developed while diastolic pressure was increased from 0 to 30 mm Hg in steps of 5 mm Hg. Balloon volume was kept

constant during experiments involving other protocols; Metformin purchase this permitted changes Amrubicin in diastolic and systolic pressures to be measured. Initially, recordings were taken under control conditions in both groups. In order to analyze inotropic response, a single dose of isoproterenol (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) in bolus (100 μl, 10 μM) was administered to evaluate β-adrenoceptor response. Some animals were killed at the end of hemodynamic measurements. The hearts were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at − 80 °C until the day of analysis. Briefly, as previously reported (Moreira et al., 2003), myosin was prepared from minced and homogenized left ventricles extracted with KCl-phosphate buffer (0.3 M KCl and 0.2 M phosphate buffer [pH 6.5](Klotz et al., 1975)). Myosin ATPase activity was assayed according to previous reports (Klotz et al., 1975 and Cappelli et al., 1989) by measuring inorganic phosphate (Pi) liberation from 1 mM ATP in the presence of 50 mM HEPES (pH 7), 0.6 M KCl, 5 mM CaCl2, or 10 mM ethylene glycol-bis (β-amino ethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetra acetic acid (EGTA) in a final volume of 200 μL. Samples were assayed in duplicate or triplicate and corrected for non-enzymatic hydrolysis by using controls assayed in the same conditions, except that the protein sample was added after the interruption of the reaction by using 200 μL of 10% trichloroacetic acid.

[16] und Factor-Litvak et al [17] untersucht, ohne dass ein Zusa

[16] und Factor-Litvak et al. [17] untersucht, ohne dass ein Zusammenhang gefunden wurde. Man könnte annehmen, dass die gleichzeitige Exposition gegenüber MeHg, das z. B. in Fisch enthalten ist, durch Amalgam ausgelöste Effekte auf den Fetus verstärkt. Bei den Untersuchungen von Watson et al. [18] wurde ein solcher Zusammenhang jedoch nicht gefunden. Bei Zahnärzten und zahnärztlichen Assistenten kann es während der Vorbereitung und der Verarbeitung von Dentalamalgam zur Exposition gegenüber Quecksilber CP-868596 mouse kommen. Das

sich hieraus möglicherweise ergebende berufsbedingte Risiko war der Gegenstand einer Reihe von Studien. Es bestehen Bedenken, eine Exposition gegenüber Quecksilberdampf, die zu einer Erhöhung der Quecksilberkonzentration im Urin auf über 500 nmol/l führt, könne chronische kognitive Effekte verursachen; diesen wurde anhand einer Metaanalyse nachgegangen

[19]. Weitere Studien von Langworth et al. [20] und Hilt et al. [21] gaben ebenfalls Anlass zu der Befürchtung, dass die Prävalenz sowohl von kognitiven Funktionsstörungen als auch von neuropsychologischen Symptomen bei zahnmedizinischem Personal erhöht sein könnte. Hinweise auf eine solche Assoziation ergaben sich aus der Studie von Ritchie et al. [22], doch die Unterschiede konnten nicht direkt auf die Exposition gegenüber Quecksilber zurückgeführt werden. Daher wurde z. B. von Echeverria [23] die Notwendigkeit weiterer Studien betont. In zwei jüngeren Studien wurden solche Langzeiteffekte allerdings nicht beobachtet [24] and [25]. Darüber hinaus wurde auch keinerlei Risiko für Schwangerschaften oder für angeborene Fehlbildungen nachgewiesen [26]. Anorganische Quecksilberverbindungen werden in einem außerordentlich breiten Spektrum von medizinischen und kosmetischen Produkten verwendet, darunter Antiseptika,

Zahnpulver für Babys und Bleichcremes für die Haut. Versehentliche oder absichtliche Vergiftungen mit Quecksilberchlorid sind nicht selten vorgekommen. Anorganische Quecksilberverbindungen können Quecksilber entweder in der Oxidationsstufe I (Hg2++) oder II (Hg2+) enthalten. Quecksilber(I)-chlorid (Kalomel) ist in Wasser sehr schwer löslich und wird daher als ungefährlich betrachtet. Die Anwendung von quecksilberhaltigem Pulver bei zahnenden Babys verursachte jedoch einen deutlichen Anstieg des Quecksilbergehalts im Urin [27]. Es wurde außerdem spekuliert, dass Abraham Lincolns zeitweise science unstetes Verhalten die Folge seiner regelmäßigen Einnahme von „blauen Pillen” sein könnte, die Quecksilber(I) enthielten [28]. Anorganisches Quecksilber akkumuliert am stärksten in der Niere, gefolgt von der Leber. Die Kinetik des zweiwertigen Quecksilbers beim Menschen wurde von Rahola et al. [29] und von Hattula und Rahola [30] beschrieben. In den beiden Arbeiten wurde gezeigt, dass etwa 1-16% der anfänglichen Dosis aufgenommen wurden, wobei die Halbwertszeit im Körper 41 Tage betrug. Innerhalb der ersten 58 Tage wurde keine signifikante Ablagerung von Quecksilber im Kopfbereich beobachtet.

We found that

concrete nouns and verbs activate frontocen

We found that

concrete nouns and verbs activate frontocentral cortex to different degrees. Whereas motor and premotor areas are relatively more strongly activated by action verbs, concrete nouns activated more anterior prefrontal areas. At the cognitive level, these differential activations appear to relate to the processing of action schemas that are part of the semantic representation of action verbs and of form knowledge semantically linked to object words. Abstract nouns and verbs fail to elicit similar activation differences, thus calling this website into question previous claims about genuine brain loci for the major lexical categories. Systematic investigation of other areas, especially temporal cortex, Sotrastaurin manufacturer also failed to reveal a genuine distinction between noun and verb processing loci. We

suggest that topographical brain activation differences elicited by words are driven by semantic factors and that the lexical category distinction is mechanistically implemented at a level beyond the grain size of neurometabolic imaging. This work was supported by the MRC (MC_US_A060_0034, U1055.04.003.00001.01 to F.P., MRC studentship to R.M.), EPSRC and BBSRC (BABEL grant), DFG (Center of Excellence “Languages of Emotion”) and Freie Universität Berlin. We would like to thank Clare Cook, Olaf Hauk, Bettina Mohr, Yury Shtyrov and Francesca Carota for their help at different stages of this work. “
“In Chen Y-K, Wong KS, Mok V, Ungvari GS, Tang WK. Health-related quality of life in patients with poststroke emotional incontinence. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1659-62 author affiliations should read: From the Departments of Psychiatry (Tang) and Medicine and Therapeutics (Wong, Mok), The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, Guangdong Province, P.R. China (Chen); and the School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Notre Dame, Australia, Marian Centre, Perth, Australia (Ungvari). “
“The article, Graham JE, Karmarkar

AM, Ottenbacher KJ. BCKDHA Small sample research designs for evidence-based rehabilitation: issues and methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:S111-6, was mistakenly published online as an uncorrected proof in May 2012. The article was embargoed to publish as a special communication with all other content for the August 2012 Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation supplemental issue (August 2012; Vol 93, No. 8, Suppl 2). In an attempt to remove the article from online publication and remedy the publishing error, the publisher erroneously retracted the article. The authors in no way precipitated the unintended retraction and at no time was the article retracted because of an ethical violation or issue. The publisher apologizes for this error. “
“On May 19 and 20, 2012, the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation held the Part II (oral) certification examination.

Proteins were detected using Universal His Western Blot Kit 2 0 (

Proteins were detected using Universal His Western Blot Kit 2.0 (Clontech) according to the manufactures protocol. For mass spectrometric protein identification TDH-bands were excised from Coomassie blue stained SDS gels, destained with 50% acetonitrile: 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate and the gel was dehydrated by the addition of enough 100% acetonitrile

to cover each gel piece. Finally, the samples were dried in a Speed-Vac for 5 min. The sample was rehydrated with 10 mM DTT, incubated for 45 min at 56 °C and then alkylated with 54 mM iodoacetamide: 25 mM ammonium bicarbonate for 30 min at room temperature in the dark. Samples were washed two times in 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate followed by incubation in 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate:

50% acetonitrile. After the final dehydration the sample was dried in a Speed-Vac. Gemcitabine The gel bands were rehydrated (with a 12.5 ng/ml solution of trypsin) in ice cold 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate and incubated on ice for 30 min. Gel Selleckchem Quizartinib bands were covered by adding 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate, then placed at 37 °C overnight. The trypsin digestion was stopped by the addition of 1% trifluoroacetic acid: 30% acetonitrile. Samples were centrifuged and the supernatants concentrated using ZipTip C18 pipette tips according to the manufacturers instructions (Millipore, Billerica, MA). Peptide extracts were mixed on the MALDI-TOF sample plate with matrix and dried. The matrix was a concentrated solution of α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid in 1% trifluoroacetic acid: 50% acetonitrile (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen). MALDI TOF-MS was performed using a Bruker Ultraflex II MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen). MALDI-MS/MS mass spectra were acquired in LIFT mode. Database searches (NCBI), through Mascot were performed via BioTools 3.0 software (Bruker Daltonics) using PMF and MS/MS (PFF) datasets. Casein kinase 1 A reversed passive latex agglutination test (KAP-RPLA test) was used for the detection

of cell-free produced TDH proteins (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan). The KAP-RPLA “Seiken” specifically detects V. parahaemolyticus TDH with rabbit antisera. The test was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 5 μl of CRMs from each in vitro transcription-translation reaction were added to 95 μl of diluent reagent and serial twofold dilutions were made with 25 μl diluent reagent in microtiter plates. Each suspension was tested in parallel with sensitized latex and control latex (25 μl each, five dilutions per series). The plates were incubated overnight at room temperature. In order to investigate the hemolytic activity of cell-free synthesized TDH proteins, 10 μl aliquots of in vitro translation reaction (CRM and SN) were directly spotted on a blood agar plate. Toxin concentrations in supernatants were adjusted to a concentration of 120 μg/ml with the SN of the no template control (NTC) reaction.

CADE establishes and enforces eligibility requirements and accred

CADE establishes and enforces eligibility requirements and accreditation standards that ensure the quality and continued improvement of nutrition and dietetics education programs. The accreditation Hydroxychloroquine ic50 decisions made at the most recent CADE meeting are available at and include status of programs which have received candidacy for accreditation, full accreditation, probationary accreditation and withdrawal from accreditation. Accredited dietetics education programs are periodically reviewed to ensure they uphold the standards

set forth by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. Part of the program review process is the consideration of third-party input on a program’s practices, procedures, and educational outcomes. Members with concern as to

a program’s compliance with the standards are encouraged to forward their comments to CADE. A list of programs under review for candidacy or full accreditation and a corresponding site visit schedule is available at The Accreditation Standards are located at Any comments on substantive matters GDC-0199 purchase related to the quality of any of these educational programs must be sent 30 days prior to the program’s scheduled site visit or by the designated review date to: The American Dietetic Association ATTN: Ulric Chung, PhD 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000 Chicago, IL 60606 Members often inquire about donating their old Journals to a good cause, but don’t know where to start. The Web site for the Health Sciences Library at the University of Buffalo provides a list of organizations that accept donations of old journals and redistribute them to developing countries, found at

The Journal encourages our readers to take advantage of this opportunity to share our knowledge. July 13-16, 2011, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore. The Singapore Nutrition and Dietetics Association will be organizing the 11th Bortezomib purchase Asian Congress of Nutrition, the theme of which is “Nutritional Well-Being for a Progressive Asia—Challenges and Opportunities.” As Asia moves into the next decade of the 21st century, it is experiencing changes in infrastructure, communications, technology, and economics. The Congress provides an opportunity for nutrition scientists to exchange ideas on how to improve the nutritional status of both the Asian and global population, and also to discuss the results of research presented at the Congress. For more information, visit http://www.acn2011.

8 value used The importance of backscattering angles close to 18

8 value used. The importance of backscattering angles close to 180° for water leaving radiance with a fixed backscattering ratio stems from the fact that in the first order of scattering, not all backscattered photons are able to leave the water, with the Fresnel reflection coefficient increasing as the backscattering direction recedes from the zenith until at 48.6° (for flat sea surface),

total internal scattering makes it impossible for the photons to leave the water. This means that for a light source at the zenith, the first order of scattering photons may leave the water only if scattered between 131.4° and 180°. This is why this scattering region (see also Sullivan & Twardowski 2009), as opposed to total backscattering, is so important FG-4592 for reflectance, especially in the small single scattering albedo regime (where a single order of scattering is dominant). For RSR which takes into account only vertical water leaving radiance, the first order of scattering influences RSR only through a single backscattering angle 180° − φ, where φ is the (in-water) source zenith angle. Therefore, the existence

of a scattering peak at 180° translates directly into a RSR peak for ω = 0° (the solar zenith angle in Figure 3 is defined above the water, but obviously the zenith angle of 0° is identical in and above the water). Therefore, the different values of the 180° scattering peak for different phase Sotrastaurin functions (with Henyey-Greenstein having no peak and Petzold having the largest one) seem to be the source of RSR variability close to a solar zenith angle of 0°. Zaneveld (1995), who analytically considered the variability of

the remote sensing reflectance, showed that the approximation of RSR is proportional to the value of the phase function for an angle π – ψ (where ψ is the zenith angle of maximum of radiance). Apart from Petzold’s functions, the values of the water leaving radiance for various phase functions (Figure 3) Staurosporine are arranged in the same way as the scattering angles for values less than 180°. The highest water leaving radiance for the zenith Sun’s position (angular distance from the zenith) from 0 to about 60° is observed for the function FF with n = 1.01, and the lowest value in that range of angles has the function of HG. For larger zenith angles the situation is reversed: phase functions are arranged in the same way for angles 180 – ψ. For ψ from 0 to about 60, the highest phase function values are those for FF with n = 1.01, while the lowest ones are the values of HG. We show that the difference in angular shape between measured and analytical (Fournier-Forand) functions of the same backscattering ratio is not the only source of discrepancy in calculated remote sensing reflectances.