We found that Si-projecting vM1 pyramidal neurons strongly recruited vasointestinal peptide Selleckchem YM155 (VIP)-expressing GABAergic interneurons, a subset of serotonin receptor expressing interneurons. These VIP interneurons preferentially
inhibited somatostatin-expressing interneurons, neurons that target the distal dendrites of pyramidal cells. Consistent with this vM1-mediated disinhibitory circuit, the activity of VIP interneurons in vivo increased and that of somatostatin interneurons decreased during whisking. These changes in firing rates during whisking depended on vM1 activity. Our results suggest previously unknown circuitry by which inputs from motor cortex influence sensory processing in sensory cortex.”
“Epidemiologic Acalabrutinib in vitro studies have adapted to the genomics era by forming large international consortia to overcome issues of large data volume and small sample size. Whereas
both cohort and well-conducted case-control studies can inform disease risk from genetic susceptibility, cohort studies offer the additional advantages of assessing lifestyle and environmental exposure-disease time sequences often over a life course. Consortium involvement poses several logistical and ethical issues to investigators, some of which are unique to cohort studies, including the challenge to harmonize prospectively collected lifestyle and environmental exposures validly across individual studies. An open forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges of large-scale cohorts and their consortia was held in June 2009 in Banff, Canada, and is summarized in this report.”
“Study Design. A long-term, population based, retrospective follow-up study.\n\nObjective. To evaluate long-term outcomes of brace and surgical treatment for spinal deformities in patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD).\n\nSummary of Background Data. Literature on the brace treatment
and surgery of spinal deformities in patients with DD is limited.\n\nMethods. All patients with DD undergoing either brace treatment or surgery for spinal deformity with a minimum of 2 years follow-up were identified in our country. Eight patients had undergone brace treatment and 12 had been Selleck PXD101 treated operatively. Two patients had early progressive and the rest idiopathic-like scoliosis. Five patients underwent posterior only, 1 anterior only, and 6 anteroposterior surgery. Patients’ mean age at the beginning of brace treatment was 6.9 (range, 0.9-12.7) years and at the time of surgery 13.4 (range, 6.5-20.1) years. The follow-up time averaged 17 (range, 6.6-44.3) years for the brace and 14.0 (range, 2.1-37.2) years for the surgical treatment group. The radiographic follow-up rate was 100%.\n\nResults. Both thoracic and lumbar curves progressed during brace treatment (mean major curve progression 12%, range, -43%-53%).
The structural and morphological properties of the GaInP/GaAs solar cell structure Cediranib supplier have been evaluated by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. In addition, the GaInP/GaAs solar cell device was fabricated to obtain electrical output parameters of the cells. For this purpose, the current voltage measurements of solar cell devices were carried out at room temperature under both dark and air mass 1.5 global radiation (AM1.5) using solar simulator. In addition, the electrical output parameters of the GaInP/GaAs solar cell structure with the AlGaAs tunnel junction are compared with the GaInP/GaAs solar cell
structure without the AlGaAs tunnel junction, and it is found that the integration of the tunnel junction into a solar cell structure improves the device performance by 48%. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) (E.C. 22.214.171.124) is a metallopeptidase that cleaves the N-terminal methionine (Met) residue from some proteins. MAP is essential for growth of
several bacterial pathogens, making it a target for antibacterial drug discovery. MAP enzymes are also present in eukaryotic cells, and one is a target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. To screen large compound libraries Selleckchem Cyclosporin A for MAP inhibitors as the starting point for drug discovery, a high-throughput-compatible assay is valuable. Here the authors describe a novel assay, which detects the Met product of MAP-catalyzed peptide cleavage by coupling it to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and inorganic phosphate (P-i) by SAM synthetase (MetK) combined with inorganic pyrophosphatase. The three P-i ions produced for each Met consumed are detected using Malachite Green/molybdate reagent. This assay can use any unmodified peptide MAP substrate with an N-terminal Met. The assay was used to measure kinetic constants for Escherichia coli MAP using Mn2+ as the activator and the peptide Met-Gly-Met-Met as the substrate, as well as to measure
the potency of a MAP inhibitor. A Mn2+ buffer is described that can be used to prevent free Mn2+ depletion by chelating compounds from interfering in screens for MAP inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening 2011; 16: 494-505)”
“Eukaryotic transcriptional AC220 in vitro repressors function by recruiting large coregulatory complexes that target histone deacetylase enzymes to gene promoters and enhancers. Transcriptional repression complexes, assembled by the corepressor NCoR and its homolog SMRT, are crucial in many processes, including development and metabolic physiology. The core repression complex involves the recruitment of three proteins, HDAC3, GPS2 and TBL1, to a highly conserved repression domain within SMRT and NCoR. We have used structural and functional approaches to gain insight into the architecture and biological role of this complex.
However, once the P-factor rose above 1189, hemicellulose sugars were significantly degraded into furans; pulp and paper properties were also deteriorated due to cellulose degradation, lignin deposition and condensation. Thus, considering the different end use of pulps, the performance of an HWE-based biorefinery could be balanced by its HWE severity. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report a rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma arising in a 52-year-old man with biopsy-proven aggressive polymyositis, who had cardiac involvement, progressive bulbar β-Nicotinamide manufacturer symptoms, and died 11 months post diagnosis
due to multiorgan failure. Using a multimodality approach including immunohistochemistry, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array analysis, and high-throughput sequencing of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of T-cell receptor beta (TCR beta) genes, our study demonstrates a molecular link between polymyositis and T-cell lymphoma, and provides evidence of the rapid and possibly late occurrence of genomic instability during neoplastic transformation of an oligoclonal T-cell population. Immunohistochemical
analysis revealed loss of CD5, CD7, and CD8 antigen expression in autopsy tissue samples, as well as the occurrence of aberrant CD56 expression, not seen in pre-mortem biopsies, supporting the emergence of a neoplastic T-cell population. Multiplex polymerase GSK690693 chain reaction and next-generation sequencing of the TCR beta CDR3 region displayed two unique T-cell clones in both the diagnostic biopsy confirming polymyositis and the autopsy muscle tissue exhibiting T-cell lymphoma, linking the two pathological processes. SNP-array analysis revealed complex genomic abnormalities at autopsy but not in the pre-mortem muscle biopsies displaying polymyositis, confirming malignant transformation of the oligoclonal T-cell infiltrate. Our findings raise the possibility that clinically aggressive polymyositis might
represent a preneoplastic PKC inhibitor condition in some instances, similar to certain other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.”
“Humanin (HN) is a recently identified neuroprotective and antiapoptotic peptide derived from a portion of the mitochondrial MT-RNR2 gene. We provide bioinformatic and expression data suggesting the existence of 13 MT-RNR2-like nuclear loci predicted to maintain the open reading frames of 15 distinct full-length HN-like peptides. At least ten of these nuclear genes are expressed in human tissues, and respond to staurosporine (STS) and beta-carotene. Sequence comparisons of the nuclear HN isoforms and their homologues in other species reveal two consensus motifs, encompassing residues 5-11 (GFS/NCLLL), and 14-19 (SEIDLP/S).
Additional studies are needed to further investigate potential heterogeneity of the vitamin B6 association with breast Poziotinib cancer risk by tumor hormone receptor status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(11); 1942-8. (C)2012 AACR.”
“The chaperonin GroEL interacts with various proteins, leading them to adopt their correct conformations with the aid of GroES and ATP. The actual mechanism is
still being debated. In this study, by use of cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the solution structure of the Thermus thermophilus GroEL-GroES complex encapsulating its substrate proteins. We observed the averaged density of substrate proteins in the center of the GroEL-GroES cavity. The position of the averaged substrate density in the cavity suggested a repulsive interaction between a majority of the substrate proteins and the interior wall of the cavity, which is suitable for substrate release. In addition, we observed a distortion of the cis-GroEL ring, especially at the position near the substrate, which indicated that the interaction between the encapsulated proteins and the GroEL ring results in an adjustment in the cavity’s shape to accommodate the substrate.”
“Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a mesenchymal tumor consisting of distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells, and is commonly detected in the uterus. The liver is an uncommon site for primary PEComa. In this study, we report
a case of primary hepatic PEComa in a 36-year-old woman. Upon gross examination, the tumor was a well-defined, brownish solid mass, measuring 6.5 x 5.2 x 4.5 cm. Microscopically, the tumor consisted Selleckchem JQ1 largely of epithelioid cells and some spindle cells with a clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm and a rich network of delicate capillaries in the stroma.
With the exception of their relatively large size and microscopically sinusoidal infiltrative GANT61 purchase growth pattern, all other histopathologic features of the tumor were consistent with their being benign. The tumor cells were positive for human melanoma black-45 and smooth muscle actin, and negative for cytokeratin-cocktail and c-kit.”
“In 2004, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) published the “Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines,” which was to be implemented in forthcoming clinical practice guidelines (CPG). This protocol formally incorporated subjective factors and evidence-based medicine (EBM) methods that tightly mapped evidence levels to recommendation grades. A uniform publication template and multilevel review process were also outlined. Seven CPG have been subsequently published with use of this 2004 AACE protocol. Recently, growing concerns about the usefulness of CPG have been raised. The purposes of this report are to address shortcomings of the 2004 AACE protocol and to present an updated 2010 AACE protocol for CPG development.
But this induced effect was not inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor LY294002. These results indicated that insulin regulated P-glycoprotein Mocetinostat function and expression through signal transduction pathways involving activation of PKC/NF-kappa B but not PI3K/Akt pathway (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The response of eukaryotic cells to ionising radiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks is highly conserved and involves a DNA repair mechanism characterised by the early phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (producing the active form H2AX). Although
the expression of an induced H2AX variant has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster, the expression and radiation response of a H2AX homologue has not been reported in economically important fruit flies. We use Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly) to investigate this ACY-738 price response with a view to developing molecular assays to detect/quantify exposure of fruit flies to IR and consequent DNA damage. Deep sequencing confirmed the presence of a H2AX homologue that we have termed H2AvB (i.e. variant Bactrocera) and has an identical sequence to a histone reported from the human disease vector Glossina morsitans. A
linear doseresponse of H2AvB (0400 Gy IR) was observed in whole Q-fly pupal lysates 24h post-IR and was detected at doses as low as 20 Gy. H2AvB signal peaked at similar to 20min after IR exposure and at 24h post-IR the signal remained elevated but declined significantly by 5 days. Persistent and dose-dependent H2AvB signal could be detected and quantified either by western blot or by laser scanning cytometry up to 17 days post-IR exposure in histone extracts or isolated nuclei from adult Q-flies (irradiated as pupae). We conclude that IR exposure in Q-fly leads to persistent H2AvB signals (over a period
of days) that can easily learn more be detected by western blot or quantitative immunofluorescence techniques. These approaches have potential as the basis for assays for detection and quantification of prior IR exposure in pest fruit flies.”
“This short paper is a personal account of the development of techniques to enhance the bioavailability of a series of poorly soluble drugs by particle size reduction to the nanometer size range. This is a nanotechnological approach which has come of age and has had a practical impact on drug delivery. The drug is in effect the nanosystem. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse, household dysfunction, and neglect, have been shown to increase adults’ risk of developing chronic conditions and risk factors for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6-8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably
high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin GLP-1 were retained. At 10-12 weeks of age, fa/famale rats exhibited marked glucose intolerance as well as severe insulin resistance similar to that at the earlier age. In the pancreatic islets, the insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation was maintained but the response to the incretin Selleck KPT-8602 was diminished. In nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF) rats, the insulin secretory responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin in the pancreatic islets were similar to
those of ZFDM rats. As islet architecture was destroyed with age in ZFDM rats, a combination of severe insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretory response to incretin, and intrinsic fragility of the islets may cause the development of T2D in this strain.”
“Novel dihydropyrazole sulfonamide derivatives (30-56) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological 3-deazaneplanocin A cost activities as COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. In vitro biological evaluation against three human tumor cell lines revealed that most target compounds showed antiproliferative activities. Among the compounds, compound 48 exhibited the most potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor (COX-2 IC50 = 0.33 mu M; COX-1 IC50 = 68.49 mu M) relative to the reference drugs celecoxib (IC50 = 0.052 mu M). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 48 into GSK1838705A Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor the COX-2 active site and the result showed that compound 48 could bind well at the COX-2 active site and it indicated that compound 48 could be a potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The conventional view of AD (Alzheimer’s disease) is that
much of the pathology is driven by an increased load of beta-amyloid in the brain of AD patients (the ‘Amyloid Hypothesis’). Yet, many therapeutic strategies based on lowering beta-amyloid have so far failed in clinical trials. This failure of beta-amyloid-lowering agents has caused many to question the Amyloid Hypothesis itself. However, AD is likely to be a complex disease driven by multiple factors. In addition, it is increasingly clear that beta-amyloid processing involves many enzymes and signalling pathways that play a role in a diverse array of cellular processes. Thus the clinical failure of beta-amyloid-lowering agents does not mean that the hypothesis itself is incorrect; it may simply mean that manipulating beta-amyloid directly is an unrealistic strategy for therapeutic intervention, given the complex role of beta-amyloid in neuronal physiology.
cerevisiae. Although ChIP-Seq in mammalian cell lines is replacing array-based ChIP-chip as the standard for transcription factor
binding studies, ChIP-Seq in yeast is still underutilized compared to ChIP-chip. We developed a multiplex barcoding system that allows simultaneous sequencing and analysis of multiple samples using Illumina’s platform. We applied this method to analyze the chromosomal distributions of three yeast DNA binding proteins (Ste12, Cse4 and RNA PoIII) and a reference sample (input DNA) in a single experiment and demonstrate its utility for rapid and accurate results at reduced costs.\n\nResults: We developed a barcoding ChIP-Seq method for the concurrent analysis of transcription factor binding sites S3I-201 mouse in yeast. Our multiplex strategy generated high NCT-501 research buy quality data that was indistinguishable from data obtained with non-barcoded libraries. None of the barcoded adapters induced differences relative to a non-barcoded adapter when applied to the same DNA sample. We used this method to map the binding sites for Cse4, Ste12 and Pol II throughout the yeast genome and we found 148 binding targets for Cse4, 823 targets for Ste12 and 2508 targets for PoIII.
Cse4 was strongly bound to all yeast centromeres as expected and the remaining non-centromeric targets correspond to highly expressed genes in rich media. The presence of Cse4 non-centromeric binding sites was not reported previously.\n\nConclusion: We designed a multiplex short-read DNA sequencing method to perform efficient ChIP-Seq in yeast and other small genome model organisms. This method produces accurate results with higher throughput and reduced cost. Given constant improvements in high-throughput sequencing technologies, increasing multiplexing will be possible to further decrease costs per sample and to accelerate the completion of large consortium projects such as modENCODE.”
“Ethylene Sonidegib mw glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) induces testicular lesion in rats and human. To investigate miRNAs expression in EGME testicular lesion, miRNA array assay and real-time
RT-PCR analysis were conducted by using testis in rats treated with 50 and 2,000 mg/kg EGME for 6 and 24 hr. The expression of corresponding target gene for miRNAs was also examined. At 50 mg/kg, there were no changes in the gene expression and histopathological examination. At 2,000 mg/kg, slight decrease of phacytene spermatocytes with cell shrinkage and nucleus pyknosis at 6 hr and remarkable decrease (or cell death) of phacytene spermatocytes with Sertoli cell vacuolation at 24 hr were observed. After 24 hr, miR-449a and miR-92a decreased obviously and, miR-320, miR-134 and miR-188 increased, while only miR-760-5p increased after 6 hr. Above these miRNAs are reported to have an important role for spermatogenesis. The gene expression of Bcl-2, target for miR-449a, increased and therefore it is considered anti-apoptotic reaction has started in this stage.
These data collectively establish a novel role for the CD70-CD27 axis in human gamma delta T-cell activation and hence open new perspectives for its modulation in clinical settings.”
“In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in proteasome inhibitors as a novel class of anticancer drugs. We report that fenbendazole (FZ) (methyl N-(6-phenylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate) exhibits a potent growth-inhibitory activity against cancer cell lines but not normal cells. We show here, using fluorogenic
substrates, that FZ treatment leads to the inhibition of proteasomal activity in the cells. Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-methylcoumarinamide (MCA), benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Leu-Glu-7-amido-4-MCA, and t-butoxycarbonyl-Gln-Ala-Arg-7-amido-4-MCA Fosbretabulin fluorescent derivatives were used to assess chymotrypsin-like, post-glutamyl peptidyl-hydrolyzing, and trypsin-like protease activities, respectively. Non-small cell lung cancer cells transiently transfected with an expression plasmid encoding see more pd1EGFP and treated with FZ showed
an accumulation of the green fluorescent protein in the cells due to an increase in its half-life. A number of apoptosis regulatory proteins that are normally degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway like cyclins, p53, and I kappa B alpha were found to be accumulated in FZ-treated cells. In addition, FZ induced distinct ER stress-associated genes like GRP78, GADD153, ATF3, IRE1 alpha, and NOXA in these cells. Thus, treatment of human NSCLC cells with fenbendazole induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, reactive oxygen species production, decreased mitochondrial
membrane potential, and cytochrome c release that eventually led to cancer cell death. This is the first report to demonstrate the inhibition of proteasome function and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress/reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines by fenbendazole, which may represent a new class of anticancer agents showing selective toxicity against cancer cells.”
“A Merck molecular force field classical potential combined with Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics (MMFF/PB) has been used to estimate the binding free energy of seven guest molecules (six tertiary amines and one primary amine) into a synthetic receptor (acyclic cucurbituril congener) learn more and two benzimidazoles into cyclic cucurbituril (CB) and cucurbituril (CB) hosts. In addition, binding enthalpies for the benzimidazoles were calculated with density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Although in most cases the MMFF/PB approach returned reasonable agreements with the experiment (+/- 2 kcal/mol), significant, much larger deviations were reported in the case of three host-guest pairs. All four binding enthalpy predictions with the DFT/PCM method suffered 70% or larger deviations from the calorimetry data.
Results: The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p smaller than 0.0001). VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive
exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p smaller than 0.0001). The PFTα chemical structure strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p smaller than 0.0001). We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001), which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase. Z-IETD-FMK Conclusions:VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.”
“In this work, we investigate the dynamic motions of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in the absence and presence of a ligand by explicitly solvated all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamics of one ligand-free FABP4 and four ligand-bound FABP4s is compared via multiple 1.2 mu s simulations. In our simulations, the
protein Sotrastaurin clinical trial interconverts between the open and closed states. Ligand-free FABP4
prefers the closed state, whereas ligand binding induces a conformational transition to the open state. Coupled with opening and closing of FABP4, the ligand adopts distinct binding modes, which are identified and compared with crystal structures. The concerted dynamics of protein and ligand suggests that there may exist multiple FABP4-ligand binding conformations. Thus, this work provides details about how ligand binding affects the conformational preference of FABP4 and how ligand binding is coupled with a conformational change of FABP4 at an atomic level.”
“Chen SC, Cheng CL, Fan WJ, Chen JJ, Lai CH, Peng CW. Effect of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) on external urethral sphincter activity in a rat model of pudendal nerve injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301: R225-R235, 2011. First published April 13, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00260.2010.-Although serotonergic agents have been used to treat patients with stress urinary incontinence, the characteristics of the external urethral sphincter (EUS) activity activated by 5-HT receptors have not been extensively studied. This study examined the effects of the 5-HT(1)A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), on the EUS-electromyography and resistance of the urethra in a rat model with bilateral pudendal nerve injury (BPNI).
We surveyed 40 Mimulus populations from localities across
GSK1120212 solubility dmso the UK to examine the current incidence of hybrids, and selected seventeen populations for genetic analysis using codominant markers. Cluster analyses revealed two main groups of genetically distinct individuals, corresponding to either diploid (M. guttatus) or polyploid (M. luteus and M. x robertsii) samples. Triploid hybrids were found in around 50% of sampled sites, sometimes coexisting with one of the parental species (M. guttatus). The other parent, M. luteus, was restricted to a single locality. Individual populations of M. x robertsii were genetically variable, containing multiple, highly heterozygous clones, with the majority of genetic variation distributed among-rather than within populations. Our findings demonstrate that this largely sterile, clonal taxon can preserve non-negligible amounts of genetic variation. The presence of genetically variable hybrid populations may provide the material for the continued success of asexual taxa in diverse environments. Heredity (2013) 110, 111-122; doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.91; P005091 purchase published online 21 November 2012″
“Microstructural design with an Al addition is suggested for low-carbon, manganese transformation-induced-plasticity (Mn TRIP) steel for application in the continuous-annealing process. With an Al content of 1 mass pct, the
competition between the recrystallization of the cold-rolled microstructure and the austenite formation cannot be avoided during intercritical annealing, and the recrystallization of the deformed matrix does not proceed effectively. The addition of 3 mass pct Al, however, allows nearly complete recrystallization of the deformed microstructure by providing a dual-phase cold-rolled structure
consisting of ferrite and martensite and by suppressing excessive austenite formation at a higher annealing temperature. An optimized annealing condition results in the room-temperature stability of the intercritical austenite in Mn TRIP steel containing Selleck LY294002 3 mass pct Al, permitting persistent transformation to martensite during tensile deformation. The alloy presents an excellent strength-ductility balance combining a tensile strength of approximately 1 GPa with a total elongation over 25 pct, which is comparable to that of Mn TRIP steel subjected to batch-type annealing.”
“A wider application of siRNA- and miRNA- based therapeutics is restricted by the currently available delivery systems. We have designed a new type of small molecule carrier (SMoC) system for siRNA modeled to interact with cell surface proteoglycans. This bifurcated SMoC has similar affinity for the model proteoglycan heparin to an equivalent polyarginine peptide and exhibits significant mRNA knockdown of protein levels comparable to lipofectamine and the previously reported linear SMoC.