Reduced HRV measured during rest does not seem to mediate phobic

Reduced HRV measured during rest does not seem to mediate phobic anxiety-related risk.”

The main aims of this study were a) to investigate the relationship between lightheadedness and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) during hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, and b) to investigate whether and why the relationship between lightheadedness and CBFv may change after several episodes of this sensation. Methods: Three hypocapnic and three normocapnic overbreathing trials were administered in a semirandomized order to healthy participants (N = 33). Each type of breathing trial was consistently paired with one odor. Afterward, participants were presented each odor once in two spontaneous breathing and in two normocapnic EPZ5676 concentration overbreathing trials. CBFv in the right middle cerebral artery was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Also breathing behavior and self-reported lightheadedness were measured

continuously. Each trial was followed by a symptom checklist. Results: Self-reported lightheadedness was closely related to changes in CBFv in the hypocapnic overbreathing trials. During the subsequent normocapnic trials, however, participants experienced more lightheadedness and “”feeling unreal”" to the odor that had previously been paired with hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia. These complaints were not accompanied by changes in end-tidal CO(2) nor in CBFv. Conclusions: The results show that lightheadedness is associated with changes in CBFv but that selleck kinase inhibitor after a few episodes, the underlying mechanism for this symptom may shift to perceptual-cognitive processes. These findings may help to understand why lightheadedness occurs during emotional distress and panic. In addition, altered cerebral blood flow is unlikely to play a primary precipitating role in recurrent symptoms of lightheadedness.”
“Avian PIK3C2G coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is variable, which causes many serotypes. Here we reported the complete genome sequences of two virulent IBV variants from China, GX-YL5 and GX-YL9, belonging to different serotypes. Differences between GX-YL5

and GX-YL9 were found mainly in stem-loop structure I in the predicted RNA secondary structure of open reading frame (ORF) 1b and the S protein gene fusion region, which will help us understand the molecular evolutionary mechanism of IBV and the disconcordance between the genotypes and serotypes of coronavirus.”
“The purpose of the present work was to investigate the mechanisms by which glutathione depletion induced by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) led within 24-30 h to PC 12 cells apoptosis.

Our results showed that treatment by relatively low concentrations (10-30 mu M) of deferoxamine (DFx), a natural iron-specific chelator, almost completely shielded the cells from BSO-induced toxicity and that DFx still remained protective when added up to 9-12 h after BSO treatment.

5, p<0 05) Results of Western blot and real-time PCR suggest

5, p<0.05). Results of Western blot and real-time PCR suggest that four proteins were translated by mitochondrial-type ribosomes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that 26 of 44 proteins were involved in some critical processes correlated to sperm-egg interaction event. In addition, Mups, whose functions in reproduction have never been studied, were chosen for further study. Our results showed that Mups proteins were localized to the acrosome

and flagellum of precapacitated sperm, and were also expressed in the equatorial segment of capacitated sperm. The depletion of Mups using neutralizing antibodies significantly inhibited capacitation in a dose-dependent manner, subsequently inhibited acrosome reaction and sperm-egg fusion. In summary, mitochondrial translation during capacitation this website can store proteins beneficial for sperm-egg interaction.”
“The spinal Neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is a potential target for development of new pain therapeutics. NPY and two of its receptors (Y1 and Y2) are

found in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a key area of nociceptive gating and modulation. Lumbar intrathecal injection of (NPY) is antinociceptive, reducing hyper-reflexia to thermal and mechanical stimulation, particularly after nerve injury and inflammation. We have also shown that intrathecal injection of the targeted cytotoxin, Neuropeptide Y-sap (NPY-sap), is also antinociceptive, reducing nocifensive reflex responses to noxious heat and formalin. In the present study, we sought to determine the STAT inhibitor role of dorsal horn Y1R-expressing

neurons in pain by destroying them with NPY-sap and testing the rats on three operant tasks. Lumbar intrathecal NPY-sap (1) reduced Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced hyper-reflexia on the 10 degrees Nutlin-3 chemical structure C cold plate, (2) reduced cold aversion on the thermal preference and escape tasks, (3) was analgesic to noxious heat on the escape task, (4) reduced the CFA-induced allodynia to cold temperatures experienced on the thermal preference, feeding interference, and escape tasks, and (5) did not inhibit or interfere with morphine analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of IBRO.”
“Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are serendipitously discovered lesions during abdominal imaging studies that need to be investigated for evidence of hormonal hypersecretion and/or malignancy. Because imaging modalities can reliably identify lesions that carry a high risk of malignancy, we focus on the identification of hypersecretory lesions and those with subclinical activity, particularly Cushing syndrome. Because diverse diagnostic tests and cut-offs are employed, the prevalence of hypersecretory AI varies widely, and there is controversy regarding their long-term sequelae.

The results show that Kv3 1b/3 2 expression is differentially con

The results show that Kv3.1b/3.2 expression is differentially controlled by neuronal activity and neurotrophic factors. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the association between the characteristics of calf muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO(2)) and exercise performance in patients with intermittent claudication.

Methods: The study comprised 39 patients

with peripheral arterial disease limited by intermittent claudication. Patients were characterized GS-9973 mw oil calf muscle StO(2) before, during, and after a graded treadmill test, as well as oil demographic and cardiovascular AZD6738 nmr risk factors, ankle-brachial index (ABI), ischemic window, initial claudication distance (ICD), and absolute claudication distance (ACD).

Results: Calf muscle StO(2) decreased 72%, from 55% +/- 18% (mean +/- SD) saturation

at rest to the minimum value of 17%+/- 19% saturation attained 459 380 seconds after the initiation of exercise. After exercise, recovery half-time of calf muscle StO(2) was attained at 129 98 seconds, whereas full recovery to the resting value was reached it 225 +/- 140 seconds. After adjusting for sex, race, and grouping according to the initial decline constant in calf muscle StO(2) during exercise, the exercise time to minimum calf muscle StO(2) was correlated with the ischemic window (r = -0.493, P = .002), ICD (r = 0.339, P = .043), and ACD cAMP (r = 0.680, P < .001). After treadmill exercise, the

recover), half-time of calf muscle StO(2) was correlated with the ischemic window (r = 0.531, P < .001), ICD (r = -0.598, P < .001), and ACD (r = -0.491, P = .003).

Conclusion: In patients limited by intermittent claudication, shorter ICD and ACD values are associated with reaching a minimum value in calf muscle StO(2) sooner during treadmill exercise and with having a delayed recovery in calf muscle StO(2) after exercise.”
“Caffeine is a widely used psychostimulant freely crossing the placental barrier. At the doses usually absorbed, it acts as an antagonist of both A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptors. Pregnant women are generally not advised to limit their caffeine consumption and thus expose their progeny to the drug during the whole of gestation and lactation. The possibility that such caffeine exposure may have long-term consequences on brain development has led to several behavioral investigations on animal models. Despite the crucial role played by adenosine receptor systems in neonatal breathing control, few studies in vitro have been concerned with the consequences of maternal caffeine absorption on breathing, and none in the unrestrained intact animal.

(J Vasc Surg 2012;56:1107-9 )”
“Appetitive stimuli such

(J Vasc Surg 2012;56:1107-9.)”
“Appetitive stimuli such PLX-4720 mw as monetary incentives often improve performance whereas aversive stimuli such as task-irrelevant negative stimuli frequently impair performance. But our understanding of how appetitive and aversive processes simultaneously

contribute to brain and behavior is rudimentary. In the current fMRI study, we investigated interactions between reward and threat by investigating the effects of monetary reward on the processing of task-irrelevant threat stimuli during a visual discrimination task. Reward was manipulated by linking fast and accurate responses to foreground stimuli with monetary reward; threat was manipulated by pairing the background context with mild aversive shock. The behavioral results in terms of both accuracy and reaction time revealed that monetary reward eliminated the influence of threat-related stimuli. Paralleling the behavioral results, during trials involving both reward and threat, the imaging data revealed increased engagement of the ventral caudate and anterior mid-cingulate cortex, which were accompanied

by increased task-relevant processing in the visual cortex. Overall, our study illustrates how the simultaneous processing of appetitive and aversive information shapes both behavior and brain responses. (c) 2013 Elsevier click here Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants especially during stress situations provides a deeper insight into compartment specific defense reactions and reflects the occurrence of compartment specific oxidative stress. With immunogold cytochemistry and computer-supported transmission

electron microscopy glutathione could be localized in highest contents in mitochondria, followed by nuclei, peroxisomes, the cytosol, and plastids. Within chloroplasts and mitochondria, glutathione was restricted to the stroma and matrix, respectively, Histidine ammonia-lyase and did not occur in the lumen of cristae and thylakoids. Glutathione was also found at the membrane and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It was also associated with the trans and cis side of dictyosomes. None or only very little glutathione was detected in vacuoles and the apoplast of mesophyll and root cells. Additionally, glutathione was found in all cell compartments of phloem vessels, vascular parenchyma cells (including vacuoles) but was absent in xylem vessels. The specificity of this method was supported by the reduction of glutathione labeling in all cell compartments (up to 98%) of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana rml1 mutant.

Importantly, antiadenoviral immunity did not inhibit therapeutic

Importantly, antiadenoviral immunity did not inhibit therapeutic efficacy. These data represent the first report of a bicistronic vector platform driving the expression of two therapeutic transgenes, i.e., constitutive HSV1-TK and OICR-9429 datasheet inducible Flt3L genes. Further, our data demonstrate no

promoter interference and optimum gene delivery and expression from within this single-vector platform. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of this bicistronic HC-Ad vector in an animal model of GBM strongly supports further preclinical testing and downstream process development of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L for a future phase I clinical trial for GBM.”
“Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized substructures of the neural extracellular matrix (ECM) which envelop the cell soma and proximal neurites of particular sets of neurons with apertures at sites of synaptic contact. Previous studies have shown that PNNs are enriched with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and hyaluronan, however, a complete understanding of their precise molecular composition has been elusive. In addition, identifying which specific PNN components are critical to the formation of this structure has not been demonstrated. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the CSPG, aggrecan, is a key activity-dependent

component of PNNs in vivo. In order to assess the contribution of aggrecan to PNN formation, we utilized cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mice, which lack aggrecan. Herein, we utilized an in vitro Cobimetinib chemical structure model, dissociated cortical culture, and an ex vivo model, organotypic slice culture, to specifically investigate the role aggrecan plays in PNN formation. Our work demonstrates that staining with the lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), considered a broad PNN marker, is eliminated in the absence of

aggrecan, suggesting the loss of PNNs. However, in contrast, we found that the expression patterns of other PNN markers, including hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1), tena-scin-R, brevican, and hyaluronan are unaffected by the absence of aggrecan. Lastly, we determined that while all PNN components are bound to the surface Fossariinae in a hyaluronan-dependent manner, only HAPLN1 remains attached to the cell surface when neurons are treated with chondroitinase. These results suggest a different model for the molecular association of PNNs to the cell surface. Together our work has served to assess the contribution of aggrecan to PNN formation while providing key evidence concerning the molecular composition of PNNs in addition to determining how these components ultimately form PNNs. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“While the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey is an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans, much remains to be learned about the evolution of the humoral immune response in this model.

The overall rate of in-hospital adverse events (transient ischemi

The overall rate of in-hospital adverse events (transient ischemic attack, intracranial hemorrhage, minor stroke, major stroke, myocardial infarction, and death) was 8.3% (9 of 109). Of these events, 2 patients (1.8%) experienced a hemispheric transient ischemic attack (neurological symptoms that resolved within 24 hours), 2 others (1.8%) had transiently symptomatic acute reperfusion

syndrome. The 30-day stroke/death/myocardial infarction risk was 4.6% (n = 5). Of these patients, 3 had minor strokes (2.7%) defined as a modified Rankin Scale score less than 3 at 1-year follow-up, 1 had a major stroke (0.9%) defined as a modified Rankin Scale Anlotinib score of 3 or more at 1-year follow-up, and 1 patient died after a periprocedural myocardial infarction (0.9%).

CONCLUSION: CAS can be performed with a low 30-day complication

rate, even with a higher percentage of symptomatic lesions. The results support the use of CAS in high surgical risk patients with both significant symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease.”
“Background Thoracic endovascular aortic repair of aortobronchial fistulas is an emerging treatment modality for this highly lethal condition. The feasibility and long-term durability of this form of intervention are largely unknown.

Methods: The records of five patients who received endografts; to treat aortobronchial fistulas at our institution were reviewed. A literature review A-1210477 supplier was also conducted using Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase MEDLINE to identify reports detailing outcomes of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair for this condition. Primary out conic end points included intraoperative mortality, 30-day mortality, and aortobronchial fistula recurrence.

Results: For the five patients treated at our institution, technical success was 100%. In follow-up, aortobronchial fistulas recurred in two patients, resulting in one patient death and one endograft explantation. We identified 32 reports that met inclusion for our final review. Inclusive of the five patients treated at out institution, 67 patients with reported outcomes comprised the overall analysis. Most patients (55%) had previously undergone thoracic aortic surgery. Commercially manufactured

thoracic endografts were used in 75% of patients. No intraoperative mortality was reported, and the 30-day mortality was 1.5%. Aortobronchial fistula recurred after endovascular repair in six patients (9%) through a mean follow-up of 21.5 months. Three cases of recurrent aortobronchial fistula resulted in patient death.

Conclusions: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair of aortobronchial fistulas appears to a viable alternative to conventional open repair with excellent short-term results. Recurrence of the aortobronchial fistula after endovascular repair is a potential complication necessitating long-term surveillance. Individual risk assessment is needed to determine if endovascular repair should be used as bridge therapy or as a definitive repair.

Adaptation to the context critically

Adaptation to the context critically Selleck AZD3965 depends on sensory feedback such as vision, touch or hearing. Although proprioception is not commonly

listed as one of the main senses, its role is determinant for the coordination of daily gestures like goal-directed arm movements. In particular, previous work suggests that proprioceptive information is critical to update the internal representation of limb dynamic properties. Here, we examined the motor behavior of a deafferented patient, deprived of proprioception below the nose, to assess adaptation to new dynamic conditions in the absence of limb proprioception. The patient, and age-matched control participants, reached toward visual targets in a new force field created by a rotating platform. Full vision of the limb and workspace was available throughout the experiment. Although her impairment was obvious in baseline reaching performance, the proprioceptively deafferented

patient clearly adapted to the new force conditions. In fact, her time course of adaptation was similar to that observed in controls. Moreover, when tested in the normal force field after adaptation to the new force field, the patient exhibited after-effects similar to those of controls. These findings show that motor adaptation to a modified force field is possible without proprioception and that vision can compensate for the permanent loss of proprioception to update the central

representation of limb dynamics. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ebolavirus (EBOV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The spike glycoprotein (GP) is believed to be one of the major determinants of virus pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrated the molecular for mechanism responsible for the downregulation of surface markers caused by EBOV GP expression. We showed that expression of mature GP on the plasma membrane results in the masking of cellular surface proteins, including major histocompatibility complex class I. Overexpression of GP also results in the masking of certain antigenic epitopes on GP itself, causing an illusory effect of disappearance from the plasma membrane.”
“Apraxia is usually associated with damage to the dominant parietal cortex, but several other areas, including the left dorsolateral frontal cortex and subcortical structures, have also been implicated, suggesting that the praxis system is mediated by an anatomically distributed network. The right premotor frontal cortex is commonly assumed to play a secondary role in this system. We describe a patient who developed left upper limb apraxia after a right premotor ischaemic stroke. The neuropsychological examination ruled out impairment of other cognitive functions, including those subserved by the parietal-temporal cortex.

Comparative genomics is a powerful tool for this task and is argu

Comparative genomics is a powerful tool for this task and is arguably preferable to any high-throughput experimental technology currently available, because evolutionary conservation highlights functionally important regions. Conserved secondary structure, rather than primary sequence, is the hallmark of many functionally Selleckchem CB-839 important RNAs, because compensatory substitutions in base-paired regions preserve structure. Unfortunately, such substitutions also obscure sequence identity and confound alignment algorithms, which complicates analysis greatly. This paper surveys

recent computational advances in this difficult arena, which have enabled genome-scale prediction of cross-species conserved RNA elements. These predictions suggest that a wealth of these elements indeed exist.”
“Purpose: Men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have higher self-reported rates of cardiac disease than controls. Peripheral arterial tone abnormalities correlate with cardiac disease and mortality. We studied vascular dysfunction in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and controls.

Materials and Methods: A total of 21 men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and

14 asymptomatic controls were tested with an Endo-PAT (R) 2000 machine which assessed the augmentation index, a measure of arterial stiffness, AG-120 manufacturer and reactive hyperemia index, a measure of endothelial vasodilation. Symptoms were measured with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and patient phenotype was characterized by the UPOINT (Urinary, Psychosocial, Organ Specific, Infection, Neurologic/Systemic, Tenderness of Skeletal Muscles) system. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Age was similar in the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome group (range 22 to Ibrutinib molecular weight 63 years, median 40) and controls (range 19 to 57, median 40). Patients had median symptom duration of 24 months (range 3 to 440), a mean Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score of 24.7

+/- 5.1 and mean UPOINT domains of 2.9 +/- 1.1 (range 1 to 5). The augmentation index was significantly higher (greater arterial stiffness) in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome vs controls (5.0% +/- 2.3 vs -6.0% +/- 3.0, p = 0.006). The reactive hyperemia index was significantly lower (more endothelial dysfunction) in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (1.76 +/- 1.2 vs 2.21 +/- 1.7, p = 0.03). There was no correlation between symptom duration, severity or phenotype (number or type of UPOINT domains) and reactive hyperemia index or augmentation index.

Conclusions: Men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have evidence of increased arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction. This is the first mechanistic correlation found that links the higher incidence of self-reported cardiac disease in these patients.

Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at res

Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used

to identify significant temporal correlations with BIBW2992 mouse BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions.

Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior

parietal cortex, respectively.

The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between see more sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas.”
“Purpose: The development of targeted agents for renal cell carcinoma has renewed interest in consolidative surgery due to the robust clinical responses seen with these agents. The integration of targeted therapy and surgery requires careful consideration due to the potential for increased perioperative morbidity.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib, Resminostat sorafenib or bevacizumab plus interleukin-2 before tumor resection.


Between June 2005 and August 2008, 19 patients were treated with targeted therapy and subsequently underwent resection. Surgical extirpation involved an open and a laparoscopic approach in 18 and 3 cases, respectively, for locally advanced (8), locally recurrent (6) and metastatic disease (3). Two patients with extensive bilateral renal cell carcinoma were also treated to downsize the tumors to enable partial nephrectomy. Perioperative complications were noted in 16% of patients. One patient had a significant intraoperative hemorrhage and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy from a concomitant liver resection. An anastomotic bowel leak and abscess were noted postoperatively in another patient who underwent en bloc resection of a retroperitoneal recurrence and adjacent colon. Two patients (11%) bad minor wound complications, including a wound seroma and a ventral hernia. Pathological analysis of 20 specimens revealed clear cell, chromophobe and unclassified renal cell carcinoma in 80%, 5% and 10% of cases, respectively. One patient (5%) had a pathological complete response.

Conclusions: Surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma after targeted therapy is feasible with low morbidity in most patients.

The goal of the present study was to find a candidate for the reg

The goal of the present study was to find a candidate for the regulatory component of the mitochondrial large conductance calcium activated potassium (mitoBK(Ca)) channel in neurons. A combined approach of Western blot analysis, high-resolution immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy with the use of antibodies directed against four distinct beta subunits demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel beta 4 subunit (KCNMB4) in

the inner membrane of neuronal mitochondria in the rat brain and cultured neurons. Within the cell, the expression of beta 4 subunit was restricted to a subpopulation of mitochondria. The analysis of beta 4 subunit distribution throughout the brain revealed that the highest expression levels LY411575 mw LDN-193189 cost occur in the thalamus and the brainstem. Our results suggest that beta 4 subunit is a regulatory component of mitochondrial BKCa channels in neurons. These findings may support the perspectives for the neuroprotective

role of mitochondrial BKCa channel in specific brain structures. (c) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The optimal prophylactic strategy and treatment regimen for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized pediatric patients is not clearly established. This study assessed the incidence, risk factors, and treatment patterns for DVT among pediatric patients admitted to a hospital ward.

Methods. Children (aged <17 years) admitted to a single tertiary-care hospital during a 14-year period who developed or presented with DVT were retrospectively identified. Patient demographic and clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Patients who developed DVT in the hospital were stratified according to the Wells clinical probability scoring system from criteria noted before the diagnosis. Treatment patterns and outcomes were evaluated between the two time intervals Tideglusib of 1992 to 2001 (group I) and 2002 to 2005 (group II).

Results. Between 1992 and 2005, 358 children were evaluated for DVT, and 99 (52 boys, 47 girls) were admitted to the hospital and were determined to have DVT by confirmatory

imaging. A prior DVT (12 total) was present in eight of the 21 patients admitted for DVT treatment; of the remaining, only seven received DVT prophylaxis on admission. In those developing a DVT, the inpatient clinical probability score was 21% (low), 40% (moderate), and 39% (high). The most common risk factor in those with prehospital DVT was a prior DVT (38%) or thrombophilic condition (33%), whereas inpatients had a central catheter (45%), with nearly 50% in the femoral vein. Children acquiring an inpatient DVT had concomitant severe respiratory (17%), oncologic (14%), and/or infectious (15%) diseases and required a prolonged intensive care unit (12.7 days) stay. Prehospital DVT was lower extremity predominant (90%) and statistically different from inpatient-acquired DVT (62%, P =.01).