We determined

We determined click here plasma levels of vitamin K compound, bone-Gla-protein, matrix-Gla-protein, and routine biochemistry. Vertebral fractures (reduction in vertebral body height by >= 20%) and aortic and iliac calcifications were also investigated in a spine (D-5-L-4) radiograph. Three-year patient survival was analyzed. Important proportions of patients had deficiency of MK7 (35.4%), vitamin K1 (23.5%), and MK4 (14.5%). A total of 55.3% of patients had vertebral fractures, 80.6% had abdominal aorta calcification, and 56.1% had iliac calcification. Vitamin K1 deficiency was the strongest

predictor of vertebral fractures (odds ratio [OR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-6.26). MK4 deficiency was a predictor of aortic calcification (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.14-7.01), whereas MK5 deficiency actually protected against it (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95). MK7 deficiency was a predictor of iliac calcification (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.03-2.60). The presence of vertebral fractures was also GSK2118436 nmr a predictor of vascular calcifications (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.08). Increased alkaline phosphatase and C reactive protein (CRP), age, and cerebrovascular events were predictors of mortality. Our study suggests that the vitamin K system may be important for preserving bone mass and avoiding vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients,

pointing out a possible role of vitamin K in bone and vascular health. Based on our results, we suggest that the general population should also be studied for vitamin K deficiency as a possible cause of both vertebral fractures and vascular calcification. (C) 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.”
“The chemical composition of 42 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia quintasii harvested in three Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID, including the determination

of retention indices (RIs), and by C-13-NMR analyses. SNS-032 cell line In total, 36 components accounting for 91.9-92.6% of the oil composition were identified. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)-beta-caryophyllene (0.9-56.9%), (Z)-beta-ocimene (0.3-54.6%), beta-pinene (0.8-27.9%), alpha-pinene (0.1-22.8%), and furanoguaia-1,4-diene (0.0-17.6%). The 42 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The composition of the oils of the major group (22 samples) was dominated by (E)-beta-caryophyllene. The oils of the second group (12 samples) contained beta-pinene and alpha-pinene as the principal compounds, while the oils of the third group (8 samples) were dominated by (Z)-beta-ocimene, germacrene D, (E)-beta-ocimene, and furanoguaia-1,4-diene. The oil samples of Group I and II came from clay-soil forests, while the oil samples belonging to Group III were isolated from leaves harvested in a sandy-soil forest.

Plasma AOPPs concentrations were correlated with FMD and plasma s

Plasma AOPPs concentrations were correlated with FMD and plasma sICAM-1 concentrations in this population. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that increased plasma AOPPs was the strongest risk factor for impaired endothelial vasodilation and increased sICAM-1 in these patients. Similar results were observed in T2D patients with albuminuria.

Conclusions: Increased plasma AOPPs concentrations were an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, and therefore may be an early marker of vasculopathy in individuals at an early stage of diabetes.”
“OBJECTIVE: Maternal infection or inflammation may induce fetal inflammatory responses associated with fetal injury and cerebral palsy. We sought to assess the inflammation-associated neuroprotective potential of prophylactic N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). We CP456773 examined the effect of NAC on prevention of maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neonatal brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Pregnant Sprague Dawley dams (n = 5-8) at embryonic day 18 received intraperitoneal injection of LPS or saline at time 0. Animals were randomized to receive 2 intravenous Bromosporine inhibitor injections of NAC or saline (time -30 and 120 minutes). Pups were delivered spontaneously and allowed to mature until postnatal day 25. Female offspring were examined by magnetic resonance

brain imaging and analyzed using voxel-based analysis after spatial normalization. T2 relaxation time was used to assess white matter injury and diffusion tensor imaging for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to assess white and gray matter injury.\n\nRESULTS: Offspring of LPS-treated dams exhibited significantly increased T2 levels and increased ADC levels in white and gray matter (eg, hypothalamus, motor cortex, corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampus), consistent with diffuse cerebral injury.

In contrast, offspring of NAC-treated LPS dams demonstrated similar T2 and ADC levels as control in both white and gray matter.\n\nCONCLUSION: Maternal NAC treatment significantly reduced evidence of neonatal brain injury associated with maternal LPS. These studies suggest that maternal NAC therapy may be effective in human deliveries associated with maternal/fetal inflammation.”
“Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question C59 mw is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation) networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners.

The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was also applied for

The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was also applied for comparative purposes.\n\nResults: Our results demonstrate that the SHAPS in its spanish version

maintains the validity and reliability level of the original english LB-100 version. A moderate internal consistency was determined by Cronbach alpha value of 0.77.\n\nConclusion: our results demonstrate the the spanish version of the SHAPS has validity and reliability similar to its original version, and thus it represents a good alternative to evaluate anhedonia in spanish-speaking populations.”
“Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been a focus of research for its potential as an eco-friendly alternative to chemical fertilizers in the agriculture industry. In current study, the effect of culture suspension

(CS) of a novel gibberellins (GAs) producing bacterial strain Burkholderia sp. KCIC 11096BP, was observed on shoot length, shoot fresh and dry biomass, root fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll contents, endogenous bioactive GAs (GA(1) and GA(4)) and their immediate precursors, abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and crude protein contents of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L). We found that growth attributes of cucumber were significantly promoted by the application of CS of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BR The quantity of GA(1) and GA(4) and their immediate precursors GA(20) and GA(9) respectively, were also significantly promoted as compared to their respective controls. Contrary to GAS, the quantity of endogenous free ABA in cucumber leaves was much lower in bacterial CS treated plants. Soluble sugar contents Tozasertib molecular weight and crude protein contents of cucumber leaves were also significantly higher in bacterial CS treatments as compared to control. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP can be used as an eco-friendly bio-fertilizer in our farming systems. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson

SAS. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundOverweight buy MK-2206 or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to lose weight for optimal glucose management, yet many find this difficult. Determining whether alterations in dietary patterns irrespective of weight loss can aid glucose control has not been fully investigated. MethodsWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to determine the effects of a Mediterranean diet compared to other dietary interventions on glycaemic control irrespective of weight loss. Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials that included a Mediterranean diet intervention. The interventions included all major components of the Mediterranean diet and were carried out in free-living individuals at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Network meta-analysis compared all interventions with one another at the same time as maintaining randomisation. Analyses were conducted within a Bayesian framework.

Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated wi

Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.022) and was significantly higher

in buccal squamous cell carcinoma with adjacent skin or bone invasion (P = 0.036). In conclusion, active matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression was associated with more aggressive buccal squamous selleck compound cell carcinomas.”
“Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of DNAzymes for therapy of various diseases via mRNA target-specific cleavage. One such target, the basic region-leucine zipper protein c-Jun, has been targeted and efficacy seen in such pathologies as cancer, ocular neovascularisation, arterial thickening, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis. This review discusses these cases in turn, and presents some new data on the applicability of a c-jun DNAzyme against a panel of cancer cells. Importantly, downregulation of c-jun is noted to cause apoptotic death of cancer cells. These studies collectively demonstrate the potential of this DNAzyme as a lead CH5424802 in vivo candidate for DNAzyme therapeutics.”
“BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of hematocrit (Hct) levels measured upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and red blood cell transfusions to long-term (1-year or 180-day) mortality for

both surgical and medical patients.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Administrative and laboratory data were collected retrospectively on 2393 consecutive medical and surgical male patients admitted to the ICU between 2003 and 2009. We stratified patients based on their median Hct level during the first 24 hours of their ICU stay (Hct < 25.0%, 25% <= Hct < 30%, 30% <= Hct < 39%, and 39.0% and higher). An extended Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the time period after ICU admission (0 to < 180, 180 to 365 days) when low Hct (< 25.0) was most strongly associated with mortality. The unadjusted and adjusted relationship between

admission Hct level, receipt of a transfusion, and 180-day mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.\n\nRESULTS: Patients with an Hct level of less than 25% who were not transfused had the worst GSK2126458 datasheet mortality risk overall (hazard ratio [HR], 6.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-12.85; p < 0.001) during the 6 months after ICU admission than patients with a Hct level of 39.0% or more who were not transfused. Within the subgroup of patients with a Hct level of less than 25% only, receipt of a transfusion was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.85; p = 0.017).\n\nCONCLUSION: Anemia of a Hct level of less than 25% upon admission to the ICU, in the absence of a transfusion, is associated with long-term mortality. Our study suggests that there may be Hct levels below which the transfusion risk-to-benefit imbalance reverses.

These alterations reverted to

These alterations reverted to NVP-BSK805 near-normal levels after treatment with SC at 400 mg/kg. Moreover, hepatic tissue demonstrated increased PPAR gamma and PPAR alpha protein expressions.

Thus, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of SC seed extract on IR and beta-cell dysfunction in HFD STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats.”
“Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variants are associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), little s known whether dietary fatty acid intake modulates these associations. Tie goal was to examine the interaction o MTHFR variants with d etary fatty acids influencing plasma Hey in 995 Bostor Pier to Rican adults. We found that plasma Hcy concentration was negatively correlated

with (n-3) PUFA intake (r = -0.117; P – 0.022), and the rat o of (n-3):(n-6) PUPA in the diet (r = -0.1 22; P = 0.009). Further, 2 functional MTHER variarts, 1298A>C and 677C>T, which are not in linkage disequilibrium in this population, were significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 1.72. P = 0.024, and OR = 1.60. P = 0 002, respectively). In addition, :he 1298A>C variant was sigmficantly associated with CVD (OR = 3.32; P = 0.030). see more Importantly. this variant exhibited significant interactions with intakes of total and (n-6) PUFA and the (n-3):(n-6) PUPA ratio of the d e:. The plasma Hcy concentration of carriers of risk allele 1298C was greater than that of roncarr ers only when participants had consumed a high-PUFA diet (>7.8% energy) but was not greater when :hey had low intake of PUFA (<= 7.8% energy). In addition, participants with combined aerotypes of both SNP (677 : with 1298 AC or CC) who consumed high levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy) had lower plasma Hcy compared with :hose who had the same genotype and consumed low levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy). Our study suggests that dietary PJFA intake modulates PRT062607 chemical structure the ef ect of 2 MIHFR variants or plasma Hcy in Boston

Puerto Rican adults. J. Nutr. 141: 654-659, 2011.”
“The identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an oncogene has led to the development of several anticancer therapeutics directed against this receptor tyrosine kinase. However, drug resistance and low efficacy remain a severe challenge, and have led to a demand for novel systems for an efficient identification and characterization of new substances. Here we report on a technique which combines micro-patterned surfaces and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (m-patterning assay) for the quantitative analysis of EGFR activity. It does not simply measure the phosphorylation of the receptor, but instead quantifies the interaction of the key signal transmitting protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) with the EGFR in a live cell context.

Our molecular modeling with the assistance of ab

Our molecular modeling with the assistance of ab LDN-193189 order initio suggested the coupling of NP likely proceeded via covalent bonding between two NP radicals at their unsubstituted carbons in phenolic rings. Data from acute immobilization tests with Daphnia confirm that NP toxicity is effectively eliminated by LiP/HRP-catalyzed NP removal. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding LiP/HRP-mediated NP reactions, and comparison of enzymatic performance can present their advantages for

up-scale applications in water/wastewater treatment.”
“We and others previously showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is indispensable for myogenic differentiation. However, it is less clear which of the

four p38 isoforms in the mouse genome participates in this process. Using C2C12 myogenic cells as a model, we showed here that p38 alpha, beta, and gamma are expressed with distinct expression patterns during differentiation. Knockdown of any of them by small interfering RNA inhibits myogenic differentiation, which suggests that the functions of the three p38 isoforms are not completely redundant. To further elucidate the MAPK inhibitor unique role of each p38 isoform in myogenic differentiation, we individually knocked down one p38 isoform at a time in C2C12 cells, and we compared the whole-genome gene expression profiles by microarrays. We found that some genes are coregulated by all three p38 isoforms, whereas others are uniquely regulated by one particular p38 isoform. Furthermore,

several novel p38 target genes (i.e., E2F2, cyclin D3, and WISP1) are found to be required for myogenin expression, which provides a molecular basis to explain why different p38 isoforms are required for myogenic differentiation.”
“Melanoma NSC23766 cost is notable for its metastatic propensity, lethality in the advanced setting and association with ultraviolet exposure early in life(1). To obtain a comprehensive genomic view of melanoma in humans, we sequenced the genomes of 25 metastatic melanomas and matched germline DNA. A wide range of point mutation rates was observed: lowest in melanomas whose primaries arose on non-ultraviolet-exposed hairless skin of the extremities (3 and 14 per megabase (Mb) of genome), intermediate in those originating from hair-bearing skin of the trunk (5-55 per Mb), and highest in a patient with a documented history of chronic sun exposure (111 per Mb). Analysis of whole-genome sequence data identified PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2)-a PTEN-interacting protein and negative regulator of PTEN in breast cancer(2)-as a significantly mutated gene with a mutation frequency of approximately 14% in an independent extension cohort of 107 human melanomas. PREX2 mutations are biologically relevant, as ectopic expression of mutant PREX2 accelerated tumour formation of immortalized human melanocytes in vivo.

“Purpose It is well known that patients with Wilson’s dise

“Purpose It is well known that patients with Wilson’s disease (WD) suffer copper metabolism disorder. However, recent

studies point TH-302 mouse to an additional iron metabolism disorder in WD patients. The purpose of our study was to examine susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) manifestations of WD in the brains of WD patients. Methods A total of 33 patients with WD and 18 normal controls underwent conventional MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) and SWI. The phase values were measured on SWI-filtered phase images of the bilateral head of the caudate nuclei, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus. Student’s t-tests were used to compare the phase values between WD groups and normal controls. Results The mean phase values for the bilateral head of the caudate nuclei, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus were significantly lower than those in the control group (P smaller than 0.001), and bilateral putamen was most strongly affected. Conclusions

There is paramagnetic mineralization deposition in brain gray nuclei of WD patients and GSK3235025 mw SWI is an effective method to evaluate these structures.”
“Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) is a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor peptide family and is expressed by various tissues, including reproductive tissues such as the uterus, ovary, and placenta. However, the regulatory Androgen Receptor Antagonist molecular weight mechanisms of Ucn2 expression and the physiological significance of Ucn2 in these tissues remain unclear. We previously showed that passive immunization of immature female rats by i.p. injection of anti-Ucn2 IgG induces earlier onset of puberty. Therefore, this study was designed to clarify the site and

regulatory mechanisms of Ucn2 expression in the uterus. Expression levels of Ucn2 mRNA in the uterus were higher in immature (2- and 4-week-old) and aged (17-month-old) rats than in mature (9-week-old) rats in the proestrus phase. In 9-week-old rats, mRNA expression levels and contents in the uterus were lower in the proestrus phase than in the diestrus phase, while plasma Ucn2 concentrations did not differ between the two phases. Ucn2-like immunoreactivitiy was detected in the endometrial gland epithelial cells of the uterus. S. c. injection of estradiol benzoate or an estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) agonist significantly reduced mRNA expression levels and contents of Ucn2 in the uterus when compared with vehicle-injected ovariectomized rats. By contrast, estradiol benzoate increased Ucn2 mRNA expression levels in the lung. Thus, estrogens downregulate Ucn2 expression in the uterus in a tissue-specific manner, and Ucn2 may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms of maturation of the uterus through ERa and estrous cycle.

“P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously show

“P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously shown to phosphorylate, and thereby regulate the activity of two classes of protein substrates: UDP-glucose dehydrogenases learn more and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Our recent phosphoproteome study identified nine new tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in B. subtilis. We found that the majority of these proteins could be phosphorylated by PtkA in vitro. Among these new substrates, single-stranded DNA exonuclease YorK, and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Asd were activated by PtkA-dependent

phosphorylation. Because enzyme activity was not affected in other cases, we used fluorescent protein tags to study the impact of PtkA on localization of these proteins in vivo. For several substrates colocalization with PtkA was observed, and more importantly, the localization

pattern of the proteins enolase, YjoA, YnfE, YvyG, Ugd and SsbA was dramatically altered in Delta ptkA background. Our results confirm that PtkA can control enzyme activity of its substrates in some cases, but also reveal a new EPZ5676 mode of action for PtkA, namely ensuring correct cellular localization of its targets.”
“Detailed electrocardiographic (ECG) support was provided to a first-in-man, single-ascending-dose study that included 6 cohorts of 8 male volunteers each. In each cohort, 6 and 2 subjects received active compound and placebo, respectively. Long-term 12-lead ECGs were obtained on baseline day -1, dosing day 1, and day 2. Automatic QT-interval measurements were made at 63 time points (28 at baseline and 35 Selleck Ro-3306 on treatment). Based on QT/RR distribution, 20% of measurements were visually verified. Baseline-corrected time-matched Delta QTc values were obtained at 35 postdose time points. Placebo subjects of all cohorts were pooled. When 2 cohorts of the lowest, middle, and highest doses were

pooled (12 subjects per active treatment group), the spreads of placebo-corrected Delta Delta QTc values were within the regulatory requirements (single-sided 95% confidence interval <10 milliseconds) at all time points. Thus, this ECG support of the first-in-man study provided data of regulatory acceptable accuracy at a small fraction of the cost of a full thorough QT study.”
“We have developed a series of novel near-infrared (NIR) wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes, SiR-NIRs, by modifying the Si-rhodamine scaffold to obtain emission in the range suitable for in vivo imaging. Among them, SiR680 and SiR700 showed sufficiently high quantum efficiency in aqueous media. Both antibody-bound and free dye exhibited high tolerance to photobleaching in aqueous solution.

Although computer simulations for a limited

number of pro

Although computer simulations for a limited

number of proteins have found some transiently open channels, it is not clear if there exist more channels elsewhere or how the channels are regulated. A systematic approach that can map out the whole ligand migration channel network is lacking. Ligand migration in a dynamic Entinostat clinical trial protein resembles closely a well-studied problem in robotics, namely, the navigation of a mobile robot in a dynamic environment. In this work, we present a novel robotic motion planning inspired approach that can map the ligand migration channel network in a dynamic protein. The method combines an efficient spatial mapping of protein inner space with a temporal exploration of protein structural heterogeneity, which is represented by a structure ensemble. The spatial mapping of each conformation in the ensemble produces a partial map of protein inner cavities and their inter-connectivity. These maps are then merged to form a super map that contains all the channels that open dynamically. Results on the pathways in myoglobin for gaseous ligands demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in mapping the ligand migration channel networks. The results, obtained in a significantly less amount of time than trajectory-based approaches, see more are in agreement with

previous simulation results. Additionally, the method clearly illustrates how and what conformational changes open or close a channel.”
“Breast cancer is a global public health burden with more than one million new diagnoses worldwide each year. As a significant proportion of women with early-stage breast cancer experience a relapse and metastatic breast cancer is generally incurable, therapeutic

innovations are ongoing. One notable innovation in recent decades has been the identification of a subset of breast cancers that overexpress selleck chemical the transmembrane glycoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and the consequent development of HER2-targeted therapy. Given the significant benefits demonstrated with the HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, investigators have endeavored to develop novel mechanisms for disrupting HER2-mediated signaling. Lapatinib, an orally available HER1- and HER2-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, represents one such notable innovation. Lapatinib is currently being evaluated in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings and was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in combination with capecitabine, for the treatment of women with HER2-positive, pretreated, metastatic breast cancer. However, the ideal strategy for incorporating novel HER2-targeted agents, including lapatinib, into existing management paradigms is uncertain.”
“Objective: Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in visuospatial working memory and visual pursuit processes.

e , absence of deafferentation), RA (i e , deafferentation), and

e., absence of deafferentation), RA (i.e., deafferentation), and vision (i.e., deafferentated limb exposed to view). To limit potential bias such as order effect, the control state was recorded in a randomized manner.\n\nResults: All subjects described perceptual illusions of their anesthetized limb. They were slower and less accurate on the task during RA compared with control. Response patterns were similar SNX-5422 in all conditions, suggesting sensitivity of performance to arm/hand biomechanical constraints. Vision

was associated with an increase in the proportion of correct responses and a reduction of the response times in hand judgment and was accompanied by disappearance of the lateralization of the underlying

mental representations, which was identified during RA.\n\nConclusions: These results suggest the following: (1) the right/left judgment task involves mental simulation of hand movements, (2) underlying mental representations and their neural substrates are subject to acute alterations after RA, and (3) the proprioceptive deficit induced by RA is influenced by the subject’s ability to see the anesthetized limb.”
“Objectives: We developed minimal incision-assisted retroperitoneoscopic DZNeP cost surgery (MARP) in an attempt to pursue optimized patient-related benefits. We evaluated the clinical value of MARP for upper urinary tract diseases compared with pure retroperitoneoscopic surgery (PRPS).\n\nPatients and Methods: Between January 2003 and September 2008, PRPS and MARP were carried out in 338 and 85 patients, respectively. The upper urinary tract surgical procedures were defined as simple and complex procedures. We defined our experience from January 2003 to December 2005 as our early stage of PRPS learning curve. Linsitinib datasheet Our experience from January 2006 to September 2008 was defined as our late stage

of PRPS learning curve. Patients’ perioperative details were compared.\n\nResults: MARP was associated with shorter operative time for each complex procedure and with less frequent conversion to open surgery (2.4% vs. 11.3%, p – 0.023). A significantly greater proportion of MARP patients underwent complex procedures (81.2% vs. 49.1%, p < 0.001), and a significantly greater proportion of MARP were carried out at the early stage of PRPS learning curve (62.4% vs. 44.1%, p = 0.003). Estimated blood loss, hospital stay, the amount of analgesic use (diclofenac sodium suppository), and intraoperative and postoperative complications were comparable.\n\nConclusions: MARP maintains the patient-related benefits of PRPS while allowing surgeons to perform more complex cases of upper urinary tract diseases and shortening the relevant operative time. It can be useful for cases in which the specimen is going to be extracted intact, when starting out learning retroperitoneoscopy, or when unable to progress the case using laparoscopic techniques.