We determined click here plasma levels of vitamin K compound, bone-Gla-protein, matrix-Gla-protein, and routine biochemistry. Vertebral fractures (reduction in vertebral body height by >= 20%) and aortic and iliac calcifications were also investigated in a spine (D-5-L-4) radiograph. Three-year patient survival was analyzed. Important proportions of patients had deficiency of MK7 (35.4%), vitamin K1 (23.5%), and MK4 (14.5%). A total of 55.3% of patients had vertebral fractures, 80.6% had abdominal aorta calcification, and 56.1% had iliac calcification. Vitamin K1 deficiency was the strongest
predictor of vertebral fractures (odds ratio [OR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-6.26). MK4 deficiency was a predictor of aortic calcification (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.14-7.01), whereas MK5 deficiency actually protected against it (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95). MK7 deficiency was a predictor of iliac calcification (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.03-2.60). The presence of vertebral fractures was also GSK2118436 nmr a predictor of vascular calcifications (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.08). Increased alkaline phosphatase and C reactive protein (CRP), age, and cerebrovascular events were predictors of mortality. Our study suggests that the vitamin K system may be important for preserving bone mass and avoiding vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients,
pointing out a possible role of vitamin K in bone and vascular health. Based on our results, we suggest that the general population should also be studied for vitamin K deficiency as a possible cause of both vertebral fractures and vascular calcification. (C) 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.”
“The chemical composition of 42 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia quintasii harvested in three Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID, including the determination
of retention indices (RIs), and by C-13-NMR analyses. SNS-032 cell line In total, 36 components accounting for 91.9-92.6% of the oil composition were identified. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)-beta-caryophyllene (0.9-56.9%), (Z)-beta-ocimene (0.3-54.6%), beta-pinene (0.8-27.9%), alpha-pinene (0.1-22.8%), and furanoguaia-1,4-diene (0.0-17.6%). The 42 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The composition of the oils of the major group (22 samples) was dominated by (E)-beta-caryophyllene. The oils of the second group (12 samples) contained beta-pinene and alpha-pinene as the principal compounds, while the oils of the third group (8 samples) were dominated by (Z)-beta-ocimene, germacrene D, (E)-beta-ocimene, and furanoguaia-1,4-diene. The oil samples of Group I and II came from clay-soil forests, while the oil samples belonging to Group III were isolated from leaves harvested in a sandy-soil forest.