In addition, both doses of SLD were found to decrease the levels

In addition, both doses of SLD were found to decrease the levels of MPO and LPO significantly when compared to the CLP group (P < 0·05). Furthermore, 20-mg/kg sildenafil treatment in the sham-operated rats improved the biochemical status of their lungs. To explore the effects of anti-oxidant defences on the sepsis process, the anti-oxidant levels (SOD and GSH) were evaluated in all kidney tissues. The levels of oxidant

parameters, such as lipid peroxidation levels and MPO enzymatic activity, were also evaluated in all kidney tissues. The results, presented Romidepsin mw in Table 2, show that SOD activity decreased but the GSH levels increased in the CLP-induced sepsis group. The 10- and 20-mg/kg doses of SLD were found to have an increasing effect on SOD activity GS-1101 nmr when the SLD-treated groups were compared to the CLP control group. Administration of SLD also increased the levels of GSH significantly when the SLD-treated groups were compared to both the sham-operated and the CLP groups (P < 0·05). In the kidney tissues of the CLP-induced

septic rats, MPO activity decreased significantly compared to the sham group. Administration of SLD to the CLP-operated rats and the sham-operated rats decreased MPO activity significantly. The lowest MPO activity was found in the sham-operated rats that were treated with 20 mg/kg SLD. Conversely, the CLP operation increased the level of LPO in kidney tissue when compared to the sham operation. Furthermore, 20-mg/kg sildenafil treatment in the sham-operated rats improved the biochemical status of their kidneys. Semiquantitative data analysis of the inflammation score and histopathological

evaluation Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK is summarized in Table 3. According to our analysis, significant differences were found in binary comparisons between the sepsis group and the other groups, with the exception of the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg group, in terms of inflammation scores. As seen in Table 3, the mean inflammation score in the CLP group was 2·3, in the CLP + sildenafil 20 mg group it was 1·3 and in the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg group it was 2·1. In evaluating the lung tissues in the sham group, vascular structures, such as the pulmonary artery branch, arterioles, terminal bronchioles, interstitium and alveoli, all had a normal appearance (Fig. 1a–d). In addition, in Clara cells in the terminal bronchiole, type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes in the alveolus were observed to be normal in high-magnification H&E-stained sections (Fig. 1b,c). In the CLP group, inflammation and haemorrhage in the interstitial area were conspicuous (Fig. 2a,d). The inflammation was composed of many lymphocytes and a few eosinophils (Fig. 2d). Inflammation was also seen in both the lamina propria of the terminal bronchioles and the wall of the pulmonary artery (Fig. 2a,c,d). The terminal bronchiole had erythrocytes and inflammatory cells in its lamina (Fig.

Finally, many of the studies were performed before modern treatme

Finally, many of the studies were performed before modern treatment of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with drugs buy GDC-0068 such as statins and renin-angiotensin system antagonists were available. These guidelines focus on ARVD as this is the most common type of RAS and the treatment of this cohort is most contentious. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is not specifically addressed by this guideline. FMD has at least five different types with varied rates of progression and it is not currently possible on the basis of angiography to classify lesions

to a particular FMD subtype. Furthermore, FMD is usually associated with hypertension and interventional therapy is unequivocally favoured irrespective of the subtype. Databases searched: The terms used to define atherosclerotic renovascular disease were ‘renal artery obstruction’ (as a MeSH term and text word) and ‘renal artery stenosis’, AZD0530 nmr ‘renovascular disease$’ and ‘renal artery occlusion$’ as text words. To define this further, the terms ‘atherosclerosis’ and ‘arteriosclerosis’, as both MeSH terms and text words were searched. MeSH terms and text words for natural history and progression were combined with MeSH terms and text words for atherosclerotic renovascular disease. The search was performed in Medline (1950–April 2009). In addition, the reference lists of manuscripts retrieved

by the above method were manually reviewed for additional studies. The Cochrane Renal Group Trials Register was also searched for trials not indexed in Medline. Date of searches: 2 April 2009. The following text summarizes the studies identified by the literature search. Table 1 in the Appendix presents a brief description of the studies. Qualitative data have been reviewed from prospective studies that recruited patients with varying degrees of stenoses to assess the variation in the rates of disease progression in patients with different grades of stenoses. A number of studies Fenbendazole have performed follow-up renal angiograms in patients to examine the progression of lesions.

These are predominantly older studies with small sample sizes. The first observational evidence for the progressive nature of ARVD came in 1966 from Dustan and co-workers. Using urographic and angiographic studies, they demonstrated that 61% of 18 patients progressed over a 6-year period.6 In 1968, Meaney et al. reported angiographic follow-up results for 39 patients with ARVD (36 with ARVD and 3 with both ARVD and FMD). Of these patients, 14 were noted to have progressive disease over the period of follow up of 7 years with 7 patients showing progression within 2 years and 3 patients within 1 year.7 Wollenweber et al. in 1968 reported a study involving 30 patients with a mean age of 52.7 years for females and 54.5 years for males. Patients with hypertension and/ or azotemia were selected for the study. After an initial aorto-renal arteriogram they were followed up with a second study after a mean interval of 28.1 months.

“Hypotonicity following water intoxication and/or salt los

“Hypotonicity following water intoxication and/or salt loss leads to mainly astrocytic brain swelling. Astrocytic swelling also occurs following brain trauma or ischemia, together with an increase in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), stimulating a bumetanide/furosemide/ethacrynic acid-inhibitable cotransporter, NKCC1, that accumulates Na+ and K+ together with 2 Cl- and osmotically obliged water. Either type of swelling may become fatal and is associated with phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Only the swelling associated with elevated [K+]o, leads to an increase in

astrocytic proliferation and in expression of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. These differences prompted us to investigate key aspects of the molecular pathways between hypotonicity-induced and high-K+-mediated swelling in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. In the latter Ca2+-mediated, AG1478-inhibitable buy Saracatinib transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor leads, via bumetanide-inhibitable activation of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway to ERK phosphorylation and to NKCC1-mediated swelling. In the former, inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway, but not of EGF receptor activation, abolishes ERK phosphorylation, but has no effect on swelling, indicating that activation of ERK is a result, not Idasanutlin cost a cause, of the swelling. “
“We report an autopsy case of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the right

frontal lobe in a 50-year-old man, in whom post mortem examination revealed massive tau deposition in the affected cerebral cortex. The patient was diagnosed as having AVM at the age of 21 years, and died of unknown cause at the age of 50 years. Immunostaining with anti-phosphorylated tau antibody (AT8) revealed many NFTs and neuropil threads, but not glial tau accumulation, in the right frontal cortex surrounding the AVM. The NFTs and neuropil threads contained

both 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau. Ultrastructurally, the NFTs consisted of paired helical filaments. In the other brain areas, a few NFTs were found in the parahippocampal gyrus. There was no amyloid deposition in the brain. A variety of disease conditions, including brain tumor, viral encephalitis, angioma and cervical the spondylotic myelopathy, have been reported to show Alzheimer-type NFTs. The present findings indicate that abnormal tau deposition can occur in neurons, but not in glial cells, of the affected cerebral cortex surrounding AVM. “
“D. Hong, Z. Wang, W. Zhang, J. Xi, J. Lu, X. Luan and Y. Yuan (2011) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology37, 257–270 A series of Chinese patients with desminopathy associated with six novel and one reported mutations in the desmin gene Aims: Desminopathy is a hereditary cardiac and skeletal myopathy caused by mutations in the desmin gene. This study summarizes the clinical, myopathological and genetic features of a series of Chinese patients with desminopathy.

Recurrence is a difficult issue and a major concern in plastic su

Recurrence is a difficult issue and a major concern in plastic surgery. In this study, we introduce a reusable perforator-preserving gluteal artery-based rotation flap for reconstruction of pressure sores, which can be also elevated from the same incision to accommodate pressure sore recurrence. Methods: The study included 23 men and 13 women with a mean age of 59.3 (range 24–89) years. There were 24 sacral ulcers, 11 ischial ulcers, and one trochanteric ulcer. The defects ranged in size from 4 × 3 to 12 × 10

cm2. Thirty-six consecutive pressure sore patients underwent gluteal artery-based rotation flap reconstruction. An inferior gluteal artery-based rotation fasciocutaneous flap was raised, and the superior gluteal artery perforator was preserved in sacral sores; alternatively, Mitomycin C MG-132 solubility dmso a superior gluteal artery-based rotation fasciocutaneous flap was elevated, and the inferior gluteal artery perforator was identified and dissected in ischial ulcers. Results: The mean follow-up was 20.8 (range 0–30) months in this study. Complications included four cases of tip necrosis, three wound dehiscences, two recurrences reusing the same flap for pressure sore reconstruction, one seroma, and one patient who died on the fourth postoperative day. The complication

rate was 20.8% for sacral ulcers, 54.5% for ischial wounds, and none for trochanteric ulcer. After secondary repair and reconstruction of the compromised wounds, all of the wounds healed uneventfully. Conclusions: The perforator-preserving gluteal artery-based rotation fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable, reusable flap that provides rich vascularity facilitating wound healing and accommodating the difficulties of pressure sore reconstruction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2012. “
“A 35-year-old woman, with a 3-week history of an enlarging erythematous, scaly plaque of the scalp vertex associated

with the onset of some painful, subcutaneous nodules on her pretibial regions. Trichophyton mentagrophytes Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) was isolated from the scalp lesion and the histological examination of one of the nodular lesions of the legs showed a septal panniculitis. The diagnosis of erythema nodosum (EN) induced by kerion celsi was made and the patient started therapy with oral terbinafine 250 mg per day for 4 weeks associated with naproxene per os 1 g per day for 2 weeks. Erythema nodosum is considered a reaction pattern to a wide variety of microbial and non-microbial stimuli: dermatophytic infections are rarely associated with EN. “
“Pulmonary zygomycosis is a relatively uncommon complication of solid organ or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and has a high associated mortality. Optimal therapy consists of complete resection of infected tissue and treatment with amphotericin B (AmB).

[2] It has become clear that dynamic changes in chromatin structu

[2] It has become clear that dynamic changes in chromatin structure play a key role in regulating genome functions, including check details transcription.[3, 4] Highly compacted chromatin structures are enriched in nucleosomes and are generally transcriptionally silent as the DNA template is inaccessible to the transcriptional apparatus. In contrast, a net loss of nucleosomes from gene-specific regulatory regions increases chromatin accessibility, enabling the binding of transcriptional regulators. This is a key initial step in gene expression. The composition of chromatin structure and biochemical modifications of histone proteins have therefore emerged as important mechanisms for the regulation of inducible

immune responsive gene transcription. Figure 1 portrays BMN 673 manufacturer the interchange between heterochromatin and euchromatin to permit binding of the transcription machinery and transcription factors. Transcriptional control is administered by mechanisms involving (i) DNA methylation, (ii) post-translational modifications of histone proteins, (iii) actions of ATP-driven chromatin-remodelling enzymes, and (iv) exchange of histone variants with canonical histones. These mechanisms function in a non-linear but inter-dependent fashion, offering multiple checkpoints for precise gene control. The role of these mechanisms in the regulation of inducible immune responsive

gene transcription is discussed in detail in the following sections. The co-ordinated and dynamic changes in chromatin structure and histone modifications are considered a key underlying mechanism that directs temporal and cell-lineage-specific gene transcription. The protruding N-terminal tails of histones in particular are subjected to chemical modifications, with over aminophylline a dozen different modifications now documented including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation, sumoylation and biotinylation.[5-7] The possible functions of these

modifications can be divided into three main groups: (i) alteration of the biophysical properties of chromatin; (ii) establishment of a histone code that provides a platform to modulate binding of transcriptional regulators; or (iii) segregation of the genome into distinct domains such as euchromatin (where chromatin is maintained as accessible for transcription) or heterochromatin (chromatin regions that are less accessible for transcription). Importantly, while such modifications can be dynamic, they can also be stably inherited by daughter cells upon division. Hence, they also contribute to the maintenance of cellular identity.[8] While particular functions have been ascribed to various histone modifications, it is becoming increasingly evident that it is the combination of histone modifications at a particular locus that is critical for transcription regulation in mammalian cells.

1) at ETS/IRF composite elements (EICE), description of AP-1/IRF

1) at ETS/IRF composite elements (EICE), description of AP-1/IRF composite elements (AICE) reveals how these factors function together to bind distinct elements

co-operatively, and may explain some of their distinct functions in T-cell subsets, dendritic cells and B cells. At AICE, combinatorial integration is possible through both varied AP-1 dimer composition and choice of IRF family co-factors. For example, IRF8 co-operates with BATF3/JUN to instruct homeostatic classical dendritic cell (cDC) differentiation, and with BATF/JUN during inflammatory cDC differentiation.[40] BATF/JUN and IRF4 co-operative binding at AICE motifs is required for instruction of Th17 GDC-0973 order differentiation and B-cell class switch recombination.[12,

30, 31, 40] Further, it is likely that co-operation of these AP-1/IRF complexes with different STAT family members can confer additional integration of environmental cues for interpretation of combinatorial motifs in regulatory DNA elements. Transcriptional programmes that integrate environmental signals with cell intrinsic features instruct cellular phenotypes, including plasticity. In this context, it is interesting to compare and contrast the transcriptional strategies of FOXP3 and RORγt in control of Treg and Th17 cell identity, respectively. Recent mechanistic insights into the transcriptional regulation of Foxp3 and Rorc and their targets explain some of the characteristics of the Treg and Th17 cellular phenotype. For example, both FOXP3 and RORγt have in common an activity that largely reinforces, stabilizes and maintains a chromatin PS-341 and gene activation landscape initiated

by ERFs. More specifically, these factors augment the expression of critical lineage-specific genes such as il2ra, ctla4, il10, il10ra, cd5, icos and notably, Foxp3 itself, in the case of FOXP3, and il17a, il17f, il1r1 and il23r for RORγt (Fig. 1). This target gene selection reflects the distinct behaviour and biology of Th17 and Treg cells. RORγt augments il23r expression in a positive feedback loop, as STAT3 signalling downstream of IL-23R activates Rorc expression. However, this feedback loop, and maintained expression selleck of Rorc and Th17 lineage fidelity, is dependent on the persistence of environmental IL-23 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and altered environmental signals, especially IL-12 and interferon-γ, can subvert Rorc expression and the Th17 transcriptional programme, converting cells to the Th1 lineage (Fig. 2).[42-44] In contrast, FOXP3 regulates its own expression upon engagement of a positive feedback loop following activation and CpG demethylation at a Foxp3-intronic enhancer (CNS2), a heritable feature of mature Treg cells, effectively buffering mature Treg cells from changes in environmental signals.[45] These differences may reflect important phenotypic features of these distinct cell types.

Syk was also required for Hrs ubiquitination catalyzed by c-Cbl E

Syk was also required for Hrs ubiquitination catalyzed by c-Cbl E3 ligase. Syk-dependent regulation of Hrs covalent modifications, without affecting protein stability, controlled Hrs localization. The majority of phosphorylated Hrs forms were observed only in membrane compartments, whereas ubiquitinated Hrs was predominantly cytosolic, suggesting that both modifications might

impact on Hrs function. Together, these findings provide a major step forward in understanding how Syk orchestrates endocytosis of engaged immune receptors. The Syk/ZAP-70 family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) plays an essential role in signaling through a variety of immune receptors (IRs), including the TCR and BCR, the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), and the widely distributed receptors for IgG [1]. All these IRs contain selleck products multiple subunits; some, unique for

Panobinostat cell line each receptor, are used for ligand binding whereas others share a conserved ITAM that is rapidly phosphorylated by PTKs of the Src family upon IR aggregation, thus allowing signal propagation [2, 3]. IR-mediated signals also lead to a negative-feedback regulation by the internalization and delivery of engaged receptor complexes to lysosomes for degradation [4-11]. In the past years, we have concentrated our interest on the molecular mechanisms responsible for ligand-induced endo-cytosis of IRs, mainly focusing on the FcεRI that is constitutively expressed on the Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) membrane of mast cells and basophils. FcεRI is composed of an IgE-binding α chain, and the ITAM-containing β and γ subunits [12]. Upon FcεRI cross-linking, the β chain-associated

Src family PTK Lyn, phosphorylates β and γ-chain ITAMs allowing the recruitment and consequent activation of Syk [13]. The use of specific Syk inhibitors and Syk-negative cell lines demonstrated an obligatory role for this kinase in FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses [14-16]. However, limited data exist on the role of Syk as regulator of FcεRI endosomal trafficking [10, 11]. We have previously demonstrated that upon antigen stimulation FcεRI β and γ subunits are ubiquitinated through the combined enzymatic activities of the PTK Syk and the Ub ligase c-Cbl [17]. More recently, we provided evidence that this modification controls receptor internalization and sorting along the endocytic compartments through the action of Ub-binding adapters [11, 18, 19]. Notably, we have envisaged a critical role for the hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) in controlling the fate of internalized receptor complexes [11]. Hrs is a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-0), resides into clathrin-coated microdomains of early endosomes where it recruits ubiquitinated cargo, and controls their delivery to multivesicular bodies [20, 21].

One of the obstacles in the implementation of clinical protocols

One of the obstacles in the implementation of clinical protocols using Tregs is their low frequency, 1–3% of total peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, and data (from animal models) which suggest that, for these cells to suppress immune responses, high doses of Tregs in relation to effectors is required [52, 53]. This means that for cellular therapy, it will almost certainly be necessary to use a polyclonal stimulus to expand Tregs in vitro. In this regard, the large-scale ex-vivo expansion of human Tregs by stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody-coated beads and high-dose NVP-BGJ398 IL-2 has been demonstrated successfully [54]. However, effectors have the potential to proliferate

vigorously under such conditions, so that even a trace of effectors in the starting population can be expanded in high numbers. The injection of such cells would, therefore, be detrimental to the patient and may lead to rejection. Thus, it is essential to either initiate the expansion culture with highly purified Tregs (a challenge in view of the absence of a Treg-specific cell surface marker) or create culture conditions that favour Treg cell growth. Two different RG7420 purchase combinations of markers appear to be promising

for Treg isolation. The first seeks to isolate CD4+CD25hi Tregs, but with the addition of an antibody to select for CD45RA+ cells and so eliminate antigen-experienced or memory T cells [16]. The second combination also uses the CD4+CD25hi phenotype, but includes CD127 expression. The rationale for using CD127 as a marker for Treg isolation (as explained in earlier sections) is on the basis that in human Tregs there is a reciprocal expression of CD127 and FoxP3, and thus CD127 provides a sortable surrogate marker for FoxP3+ Tregs [24]. Moreover, the so-called ‘naive’ Treg population based on the co-expression of CD4 and CD45RA yield Tregs with a greater suppressive capacity than total CD25hi cells [55]. The reason for this became clear when Miyara et al. [22] noted the subpopulations of human FoxP3+ T cells and discovered that the CD25+CD45RA-FoxP3hi

cells contain many Th17 precursors. Furthermore, after 3 weeks of in-vitro expansion the CD45RA+-expanded Rolziracetam Tregs remained demethylated (compared to the CD127– Tregs that became methylated) at the Treg-specific demethylation region (TSDR), which is a conserved region upstream of exon 1 within the FoxP3 locus [completely demethylated in natural Tregs but methylated fully in induced Tregs and effector T cells (Teff)] [55, 56]. Such studies, therefore, support the isolation of Tregs based on CD45RA+ expression, bearing in mind that they are the most stable population for expansion and have the greatest expansion potential [16]. Despite such studies, one drawback is that the number of naive Tregs declines in the peripheral blood with age [57], and hence isolation based on CD127 expression may still be a practical approach.

At 7 months, by contrast, infants appear to react to the higher f

At 7 months, by contrast, infants appear to react to the higher frequency of coronal consonants (Experiment 3a & b). The present study thus demonstrates that infants become sensitive to nonadjacent phonological dependencies between 7 and 10 months. It further establishes a change between

these two ages from sensitivity to local properties to nonadjacent dependencies in the phonological domain. “
“Effortful ABT-263 in vivo control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background variables (e.g., education, Selleckchem CYC202 income), maternal temperament, perceived stress, and internalizing symptoms were addressed, along with infant temperament: positive

affectivity/surgency (PAS), negative emotionality (NE), and regulatory capacity/orienting (RCO); and laboratory observation-based indicators of attention. Infant attention indexed by the latency to look away after initially orienting to the presented stimuli emerged as an important predictor of later EC, after accounting for other child and parent/family attributes, with shorter latencies predicting higher levels of EC. Mothers’ extraversion and parenting stress were the only parent/family attributes to significantly contribute to

the prediction of toddler EC, with the former promoting and the latter undermining the development of EC. Infant temperament factors were also examined as a moderator of parent/family influences, with results indicating a significant interaction between mothers’ EC and infant RCO, so that children with greater RCO and mothers high in EC exhibited the highest EC scores in toddlerhood. “
“Two preferential-reaching experiments explored 5- and 7-month-olds’ sensitivity to pictorial depth cues. In the first experiment, infants viewed a display in which texture gradients, linear perspective of the surface contours, and relative height in the visual field Tangeritin provided information that two objects were at different distances. Five- and 7-month-old infants reached preferentially for the apparently nearer object under monocular but not binocular viewing conditions, indicating that infants in both age groups respond to pictorial depth cues. In the second experiment, texture gradients and linear perspective of the surface contours were eliminated from the experimental display, making relative height the sole pictorial depth cue. Seven-month-olds again reached more often for the apparently nearer object under monocular, but not binocular viewing conditions.

The lateral abdominal wall is perfused predominantly from perfora

The lateral abdominal wall is perfused predominantly from perforators arising from the intercostal vessels. Reconstruction of soft tissue defects involving the abdomen presents a difficult challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Pedicle perforator propeller flaps can be used to reconstruct defects of the abdomen, and here we present a thorough PD0325901 review of the literature as well as a case illustrating the perforasome propeller flap concept. A patient underwent resection for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans resulting in a large defect of the epigastric soft tissue. A propeller flap was designed

based on a perforator arising from the superior deep epigastric vessels and was rotated 90° into the defect allowing primary closure of the donor site. The patient healed uneventfully and was without recurrent disease 37 months following reconstruction. Perforator propeller flaps can be used successfully in reconstruction of abdominal defects and should be incorporated

into the armamentarium of reconstructive microsurgeons already facile with perforator dissections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. “
“Single flap for complex hypopharyngoesophageal and anterior neck skin defect reconstruction is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Herein, we present five patients, with advanced BMS-354825 in vivo hypopharyngeal cancer and anterior neck skin invasion, which received a single anterolateral thigh (ALT) fasciocutaneous flap for composite inner pharyngeal and outer skin defect reconstruction after wide composite resection. Two ALT flaps were divided into two distinct paddles supplied by two or more separate perforators, one part for reconstructing the inner pharyngeal defect and another for neck skin coverage. Three ALT flaps only supplied by one sizable perforator could not be divided and de-epithelization of mid-part had to be done to reconstruct both defects with the single flap. The results revealed survival of all flaps. There were no flap loss, fistulas, or bleeding complications. All patients recovered uneventfully and could eat a soft diet to regular diet postoperatively. In conclusion,

one-staged reconstruction of complex pharyngoesophageal and external skin defects after extensive oncological resection is feasible using a single ALT fasciocutaneous Etofibrate free flap. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011. “
“After injury of the brachial plexus, sensory disturbance in the affected limb varies according to the extent of root involvement. The goal of this study was to match sensory assessments and pain complaints with findings on CT myelo scans and surgical observations. One hundred fifty patients with supraclavicular stretch injury of the brachial plexus were operated upon within an average of 5.4 months of trauma. Preoperatively, upper limb sensation was evaluated using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Pain complaints were recorded for each patient.