Another novel finding Seliciclib order is the direct activation of RAR by fenretinide. It has been shown that fenretinide induces apoptosis in many types of cancer cells including neurob lastoma cells, breast, lung, head and neck, cervical and ovarian cancer cells. However, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies suggest that the effects of fenretinide are mediated through reac tive oxygen species and caspase 3, whereas other studies indicate the involvement of ceramide and the NF ?B pathway. Both retinoid receptor dependent and independent mechanisms have been pro posed for fenretinide anticancer effects. Our results obtained from transactivation assay and ChIP assay clearly demonstrate that fenretinide directly activates RAR in Huh 7 cells.
Knockdown of RAR mRNA expres sion by siRNA provides a direct proof that RAR is required for fenretinide induced apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that nuclear receptor RAR mediates the apoptotic effect of fenretinide in HCC cells. Our findings strongly suggest a potential role of RAR as a tumor suppressor Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries by mediating the sig nals of certain chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are still unbridged gaps between RAR activation and apoptosis execution. Exploration of RAR target genes will provide helpful insights into these molecular links. Conclusion Our findings reveal that endogenous expression of retin oids receptor RAR gene determines the susceptibility of HCC cells to fenretinide induced apoptosis. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Our results demonstrate fenretinide directly activates RAR and induces RAR dependent apoptosis in Huh 7 cells.
These findings suggest a novel role of RAR as a tumor Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries suppres sor by mediating the signals of certain chemotherapeutic agents. Introduction Growth of the majority Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of breast cancers is stimulated by oestrogen and this oestrogen receptor signalling can be successfully blocked by anti hormonal treatments, in cluding aromatase inhibitors or the oestrogen receptor antagonists, tamoxifen or fulvestrant. Anti hormone treat ment is effective in a high proportion of initially respon sive patients but subsequently a significant number acquire resistance with resulting poorer survival rates. Consequently, there is an urgent need for treatments for breast cancer that improve responses to prevent or delay endocrine resistance.
In an attempt to overcome endo crine resistance, studies have focussed on developing novel agents that can reverse resistance by targeting growth fac tor signalling pathways. Endocrine resistant cells can be highly dependent on the use of activated growth factor signalling pathways including epidermal growth factor re ceptor and human epidermal www.selleckchem.com/products/Bortezomib.html growth factor receptor 2. The phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase Akt mammalian target of rapamycin sig nalling network is also often prominent in endocrine re sistant breast cancer, extending to tamoxifen resistant and oestrogen deprivation resistant MCF 7 derived cell lines.