guianensis at 1.75, 3.35 and 6.33 individuals per hectare, respectively.
Jacaranda copaia and B. guianensis are typical gap colonizing species, while M. huberi, S. globulifera, H. courbaril, D. odorata and C. guianensis are climax species, of low growth rate except for the last (medium growth rate). Dipteryx odorata is a tetraploid while the rest are diploid species. The experimental area is the 546-hectare Dendrogene plot, called the Intensive Study Plot, located in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (FLONA), Belterra. The sampling method varied for adults and progenies. For adults, cambium samples from all trees greater than 20 cm dbh were collected buy OTX015 (with the exception of J. copaia, for which samples from all trees greater than 10 cm dbh selleck products in a smaller 200 ha plot were taken). Progeny arrays comprised 20–40 fruits collected from each of 10–30 randomly selected ‘mother’ trees from 2002–2004 (pre-logging) and 2007–2008
(post-logging). Polymorphic microsatelite loci for the different species as described by Azevedo et al., 2007, Carneiro et al., 2009, Cloutier et al., 2007, Lacerda et al., 2008 and Silva et al., 2008 and Vinson (2009) were used for characterization. Logging led to a range of losses in the total number of alleles for the adult trees for the species for which estimates were made; 10% for D. odorata, 8.3% for B. guianenesis, 8.7% for H. courbaril and 11.6% for M. huberi,
respectively ( Carneiro et al., 2011, Lacerda et al., 2008, Silva et al., 2008, Vinson, 2009). Whilst these alleles may be lost from the adult population, they were found in juveniles and progenies. Furthermore, there was a compensation for the loss of some alleles by the immigration of alleles from outside the plot. These results illustrated the importance of the area surrounding the logging operation, since trees may reproduce with those outside the plot, mitigating the effects of logging. The field site used in these Flucloronide studies was surrounded by pristine forest and represented 0.001% of the total area of the Tapajos FLONA. However, if the field site had been a fragment, with no gene flow from outside, alleles would be lost with every logging event, and as more logging cycles are conducted there would be a further decline in the number of alleles over time. Jacaranda copaia and C. guianensis are out-crossed species with no inbreeding either before or after logging, results in accordance with the weak spatial genetic structure observed among adult trees. Co-ancestry values for J. copaia were: Fij = 0.1 and 0.03 up to 100 m and biparental mating (tm − ts) = 0.029 and 0.030, before and after logging, respectively ( Vinson, 2009). Values for C. guianensis were: Fij = 0.07 and 0.04 and tm − ts = 0.015 and 0.028, before and after logging, respectively ( Cloutier et al., 2007).