WT DT RGC outgrowth was increased above control levels by 46% on a mixture of Sema6D+/Nr-CAM+ and Plexin-A1+ HEK cells (WT DT plus HEK Sema6D/Nr-CAM plus HEK Plexin-A1 was 1.46 ± 0.02 versus WT DT plus HEK Ctr 1.00 ± 0.023; p < 0.01) ( Figure 5D; also see Figure 3A). The growth-promoting effect of Nr-CAM+/Sema6D+ and Plexin-A1+ HEK cells on WT DT explant neurites occurred
to a lesser extent in DT explants from Plexin-A1−/− or Nr-CAM−/− Selleckchem Talazoparib retina (24% and 21% increase, respectively) (WT DT plus HEK Ctr was 1.00 ± 0.023 versus Plexin-A1−/− DT plus HEK Sema6D/Nr-CAM plus HEK Plexin-A1 1.24 ± 0.04, p < 0.01, and Nr-CAM−/− DT plus HEK Sema6D/Nr-CAM plus HEK Plexin-A1 was 1.21 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) and was not observed at all in Plexin-A1−/−;Nr-CAM−/− DT explants ( Figure 5D). Thus, both Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM are required on crossed RGCs for inhibition by Sema6D alone and growth promotion by Sema6D presented together with Nr-CAM and Plexin-A1 ( Figure 5E). Note
that Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM expressed on RGCs seem to play equivalent, additive roles in this function ( Figures selleck 5A, 5C, and 5D). At E17.5, Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM are expressed in both non-VT and in VT retina (Figure 4B; Williams et al., 2006). Sema6D is still expressed at the chiasm midline at E17.5 (Figure 1C). Consequently, both DT and VT WT explants from E17.5 retina cultured in the presence of αSema6D grew more poorly on chiasm cells compared to growth on chiasm cells without αSema6D (DT plus chiasm plus αSema6D was 0.50 ± 0.01 versus DT plus chiasm plus αCtr 0.69 ± 0.01, p < 0.01; VT plus chiasm plus αSema6D was 0.27 ± 0.01 versus VT plus chiasm plus αCtr 0.69 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) (Figure S7D). Thus, the late-born RGCs in VT retina that have a contralateral projection are responsive to Sema6D, corresponding to the late expression of Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM in the VT retina after MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit E17.5, and further supporting the hypothesis that Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM on crossed RGCs require Sema6D, Plexin-A1, and Nr-CAM at the optic chiasm to implement midline crossing. To investigate whether Nr-CAM might
directly interact with Sema6D, we examined the binding of Sema6D to Nr-CAM and other CAMs such as L1, Neurofascin, and TAG-1, all of which are predominantly expressed in contralaterally projecting RGCs in vivo (Bechara et al., 2007, Maness and Schachner, 2007 and Williams et al., 2006) and on their axons and growth cones in vitro (Figure 6A). We performed an alkaline phosphatase (AP) binding assay by adding AP-Sema6D to HEK cells expressing Sema receptors or different CAMs (Yoshida et al., 2006). Sema6D binding was detected on Plexin-A1+ HEK cells and also on Nr-CAM+ HEK cells, but not on cells expressing other Sema receptors including Neuropilin1 (expressed in RGCs, Figure S1B), or CAMs (Figure 6B). Nr-CAM-Sema6D binding was perturbed by αSema6D treatment (Figure S5A).