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“Emerging data indicate that traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord activates B lymphocytes, culminating in the production of antibodies specific for antigens found within and outside the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we summarize what is known about the effects of CNS injury on B cells. We outline the potential mechanisms for CNS trauma-induced B cell activation and discuss the potential consequences
of these injury-induced B cell responses. On the basis of recent data, we hypothesize that a subset of autoimmune B cell responses initiated by CNS injury are pathogenic and that targeted AMG510 inhibition of B cells could improve recovery in cases of brain and spinal cord injury.”
“Rationale There is compelling support for the contribution of dopamine and the D1R-like (D1R, D5R) receptor subfamily to the behavioral and neural effects of psychostimulant drugs of abuse. The relative roles of D1R and D5R subtypes in mediating these effects are not clear.
Objectives The objectives of this study are to directly
compare (C57BL/6J congenic) D1R knockout (KO) and D5R KO mice for baseline locomotor exploration, acute locomotor responses to cocaine, and locomotor sensitization to repeated cocaine administration, and to examine cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in D5R KO.
Materials and methods D1R KO, D5R KO, and wild-type (WT) were assessed for baseline open field exploration, locomotor-stimulating effects of 15 mg/kg acute cocaine and sensitized locomotor responses to cocaine after repeated home cage selleck treatment with 20 or 30 mg/kg cocaine. D5R KO and WT were tested for CPP to 15 mg/kg cocaine.
Results D1R KO showed modest basal hyperactivity and increased center exploration relative to WT. Acute locomotor responses to cocaine were consistently absent in D1R KO, but intact in D5R KO. D5R KO showed normal locomotor sensitization to cocaine and normal cocaine CPP. D1R KO failed to show a sensitized locomotor response to 30 mg/kg cocaine. Failure to AZD1480 in vivo sensitize in D1R
KO was not because of excessive stereotypies. Surprisingly, D1R KO showed a strong trend for sensitization to 20 mg/kg cocaine.
Conclusions D5R KO does not alter acute or sensitized locomotor responses to cocaine or cocaine CPP. D1R KO abolishes acute locomotor response to cocaine, but does not fully prevent locomotor sensitization to cocaine at all doses.”
“Purpose: We examined the growth of tissue proven renal oncocytoma on serial imaging to improve our understanding of its natural history.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed the charts of 69 patients with oncocytoma diagnosed by biopsy or surgery between 2004 and 2010. A total of 29 cases were managed by active surveillance for at least 12 months and had 3 or more imaging events. Tumor size was documented and the average tumor growth rate was calculated using a random coefficient model.