were 78.4 and 76.8% in the qd and bid treatment arms, respectively, in patients with baseline HIV-1 RNA ≤ 50 000 copies/mL and 52.8% in both arms in those with > 50 000 copies/mL. Response rates for the qd and bid treatment arms by baseline CD4 cell count were also similar (69.6 vs. 65.2% for <200 cells/μL; 72.2 vs. 74.8% for 200− < 350 cells/μL; 77.0 vs. 74.3% for ≥ 350 cells/μL). DRV/r administered either qd or bid provided effective treatment for antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients with no DRV PD332991 RAMs, with comparable response rates across all subgroups studied. Low patient numbers in specific subgroups may limit interpretation of these specific subgroup results. “
“The aim of the study was to compare the metabolic and morphological effects of enfuvirtide plus an optimized background (OB) regimen vs. OB alone (control group) in treatment-experienced patients in the T-20 vs. Optimized Regimen Only (TORO) studies. Body composition and metabolic changes were investigated in patients over 48 weeks, based on fasting chemistries, body weight,
and other anthropometric measurements. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in a patient subgroup (n=155) at baseline and at weeks 24 and 48. At week 48, mean changes from baseline were similar between treatment groups for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride selleckchem levels. The enfuvirtide group experienced a significant increase in body weight [mean change from baseline +0.99 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) +0.54, +1.44] and, in those who had body scans, there was a significant increase in truncal fat (by DEXA: median change +419.4 g; 95% CI+71.3, +767.5) and total fat [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)+subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) by single-slice
abdominal CT scan: median change +25.5 cm2; 95% CI+8.9, +42.0] over 48 weeks; significant increases in these parameters were not seen in the control group. There was no significant change in truncal:peripheral fat ratio in either the enfuvirtide or the control group. The addition of enfuvirtide to an OB regimen does not appear to have unfavourable Glutathione peroxidase effects on fat distribution or metabolic parameters. The improved clinical prognosis for HIV-1-infected patients since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)  has exposed long-term toxicity issues that are becoming an increasingly important aspect of patient care. Of these, lipodystrophy is among the most frequent toxicological complications of chronic antiretroviral (ARV) use and has been associated particularly, but not exclusively, with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) [2,3].