“Changes in gene expression during inflammation are in par

“Changes in gene expression during inflammation are in part caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A transcriptome-wide

screen for changes in ribosome occupancy indicated that the inflammatory cytokine IL-17 activates translation of a group of mRNAs that overlaps partially with those affected similarly by IL-1. Included are mRNAs of I kappa B zeta and of MCPIP1, important regulators of the Sapitinib research buy quality and course of immune and inflammatory responses. Evidence for increased ribosome association of these mRNAs was also obtained in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Like IL-1, IL-17 activated translation of I kappa B zeta mRNA by counteracting the function of a translational silencing element in its 3′-UTR defined previously. Translational silencing of MCPIP1 mRNA in unstimulated cells resulted from the combined suppressive activities

of its 5′-UTR, which contains upstream open reading frames, and of its 3′-UTR, which silences independently of the 5′-UTR. Only the silencing function of the 3′-UTR was counteracted by IL-17 as well as by IL-1. Translational silencing by the 3′-UTR was dependent on a putative stem-loop-forming region previously associated with rapid degradation of the mRNA. The results suggest that translational control exerted by IL-1 and IL-17 plays an important PSI-7977 role in the coordination of an inflammatory Bucladesine inhibitor reaction.”
“The basal forebrain cholinergic system has been implicated in the reorganization of adult cortical sensory and motor representations under many, but not all, experimental conditions. It is still

not fully understood which types of plasticity require the cholinergic system and which do not. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the basal forebrain cholinergic system is required for eliciting plasticity associated with complex cognitive processing (e. g., behavioral experiences that drive cortical reorganization) but is not required for plasticity mediated under behaviorally independent conditions. We used established experimental manipulations to elicit two distinct forms of plasticity within the motor cortex: facial nerve transections evoke reorganization of cortical motor representations independent of behavioral experience, and skilled forelimb training induces behaviorally dependent expansion of forelimb motor representations. In animals that underwent skilled forelimb training in conjunction with a facial nerve lesion, cholinergic mechanisms were required for mediating the behaviorally dependent plasticity associated with the skilled motor training but were not necessary for mediating plasticity associated with the facial nerve transection.

Overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) protei

Overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) protein can delay axonal degeneration initiated via axotomy, chemotherapeutic agents, or genetic mutations.

The Wlds protein consists of the N-terminal portion of the ubiquitination factor Ube4b fused to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nmnat1). We previously showed that the Nmnat1 portion BI 2536 Cell Cycle inhibitor of this fusion protein was the critical moiety for Wld(s)-mediated axonal protection. Here, we describe the development of an automated quantitative assay for assessing axonal degeneration. This method successfully showed that Nmnat1 enzymatic activity is important

for axonal protection as mutants with reduced enzymatic activity lacked axon protective activity. We also found that Nmnat enzymes with diverse sequences and structures from various species, including Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and archaebacterium Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which encodes a protein with no homology to eukaryotic Nmnat enzymes, all mediate robust axonal protection after axotomy. Besides the importance of Nmnat enzymatic activity, we did not observe AZD3965 cost changes in the steady-state NAD(+) level, and we found that inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), which synthesizes substrate for Nmnat in mammalian cells, did not affect the protective activity of Nmnat1. These results provide the possibility of a role for new Nmnat enzymatic activity in axonal protection in addition to NAD(+) synthesis.”
“Saccharomyces Bcl-2 inhibitor review cerevisiae bioluminescent bioreporter assays were developed previously to assess a chemical’s estrogenic or androgenic disrupting potential. S. cerevisiae BLYES, S. cerevisiae BLYAS, S. cerevisiae BLYR, were used to assess their reproducibility and utility in screening 68, 69, and 71 chemicals for estrogenic, androgenic, and toxic effects, respectively. EC(50) values were 6.3 +/- 2.4 x 10(-10)M (n = 18) and 1.1 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8)M (n = 13) for BLYES

and BLYAS, using 17 beta-estradiol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone over concentration ranges of 2.5 x 10(-12) through 1.0 x 10(-6)M, respectively. Based on analysis of replicate standard curves and comparison to background controls, a set of quantitative rules have been formulated to interpret data and determine if a chemical is potentially hormonally active, toxic, both, or neither. The results demonstrated that these assays are applicable for Tier I chemical screening in Environmental Protection Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program as well as for monitoring endocrine-disrupting activity of unknown chemicals in water.”
“Demonstration of equivalence in aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD; e.g.

The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to com

The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to compute the PACADI score (range 0 to 10). The patients also completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment

System (ESAS) and EQ-5D.\n\nDimensions reported by more than 20 % of the patients were included in the PACADI score (relative weights in parenthesis): pain/discomfort (0.16), fatigue (0.16), anxiety (0.15), bowel/digestive Elafibranor concentration problems (0.14), loss of appetite (0.13), dry mouth (0.11), itchiness (0.08), and nausea (0.07). The PACADI score in the 80 PC patients had a mean (SD) value of 3.26 (2.06) (95 % CI 2.80, 3.71), was moderately to strongly correlated to ESAS sense of well-being (r = 0.69) and EQ-5D (r = -0.52), and discriminated significantly between patients with and without PC.\n\nThe PACADI score is a new eight-item, patient-derived, disease-specific measure. Preliminary validation regarding construct validity and discrimination encourages further validation in independent patient samples.”
“Background: We have recently shown that intranasal administration of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 reconstituted in Intravail (R) to male Swiss Webster mice resulted in significantly higher bioavailability than commonly used injections methods of delivery. The absorption pro. le associated with intranasal

delivery of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 showed an early peak representing absorption across the nasal mucosa, and a later peak suggesting www.selleckchem.com/products/napabucasin.html a gastrointestinal site of uptake.\n\nAim and Methods: In the present study, we examined the effects of orally administered (by gavage) mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 on energy balance, glycaemic control and serum osteocalcin levels

in male C57BL/6J wild-type and ob/ob mice allowed food and water ad libitum or calorie restricted by 40% of normal intake.\n\nResults: In wild-type mice fed ad libitum, oral delivery of mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake and serum glucose, by 4.4, 6.8 and 28.2% respectively. Serum osteocalcin levels and water intake were essentially EPZ-6438 in vivo the same in control and treated wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice fed ad libitum, mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake, water intake and serum glucose by 11.6, 16.5, 22.4 and 24.4% respectively. Serum osteocalcin in ob/ob mice treated with mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 was elevated by 62% over controls. Calorie restriction alone caused significant weight loss in both wild-type (9.0%) and ob/ob (4.8%) mice, and mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 did not further enhance this weight loss. As expected, serum glucose levels in wild-type and ob/ob mice were significantly reduced by calorie restriction alone. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 further reduced serum glucose in wild-type mice and normalized levels in ob/ob mice. Calorie restriction alone reduced serum osteocalcin levels by 44.2% in wild-type mice and by 19.1% in ob/ob mice. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 prevented this decrease in groups of mice.

This principally includes operative cytoreduction and hyperthermi

This principally includes operative cytoreduction and hyperthermic intra-operative perfusion of intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This approach has been administered either alone or in combination with early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC), or as a component of a more protracted multimodal approach AZD9291 in vivo employing initial debulking surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and whole abdominal radiotherapy. Median overall survivals of up to 7 years have been observed in series of patients selected for operative cytoreduction and HIPEC. Factors associated with good outcome are female gender, age less or equal to 60 years, and the ability to achieve

a complete extirpation of all gross peritoneal disease. In patients with symptomatic ascites, complete palliation is achieved in almost all cases. However, this treatment strategy is not without complications and carries a morbidity of 25% and mortality up to 7%. Despite these risks, the best overall survival data have been associated with this surgical mTOR inhibitor approach. At our institution,

we advocate cytoreduction and HIPEC as the standard management for patients with MPM for whom operative cytoreduction appears possible and safe. We believe this treatment approach should be considered as the standard of care for patients with MPM.”
“Objective To evaluate the utility of Tc-99m-fanolesomab (a Tc-99m-labeled murine monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody that specifically binds cluster designation 15 antigens on human neutrophillic leukocytes with high sensitivity and specificity) in diagnosing localized infections.\n\nMethods Five patients with renal allografts G418 concentration were imaged using Tc-99m-fanolesomab to look for a source of infection.

Images were obtained between 2 and 4 h after injection of fanolesomab labeled with 15-20 mCi Tc-99m. Imaging results were correlated with patients’ culture results and clinical outcome.\n\nResults Two patients showed a significant increase in renal allograft uptake and were found to have allograft pyelonephritis. One patient who developed a severe acute renal failure secondary to humoral rejection (antidonor human leukocyte antigen antibody-mediated rejection with polymorphonuclear capillaritis and glomerulitis) showed uptake similar to the lower lumbar spine. One patient with normal allograft function showed a significantly increased uptake, especially in the pelvis of the allograft, indicating normal excretion of the free Tc-99m-pertechnetate by the allograft. The fifth patient who had been off immunosuppressive therapy and on maintenance hemodialysis for 4 months showed tracer uptake similar to the lumbar spine, suggestive of chronic allograft rejection.

Muscle stretching (sinusoidal half-waves of different amplitudes

Muscle stretching (sinusoidal half-waves of different amplitudes and combinations of such waves) allowed us to obtain well-reproducible

successions of impulses with no significant changes in the resting MP of the studied motoneurons. In 14 of such cells, we found ABT-737 chemical structure significant correlation between normalized variations of the instantaneous frequency (in a sequence of preceding and subsequent action potentials, APs), indicative of a considerable probability of alternation of high and low values of this parameter. The same trend (toward alternation of high and low values) was observed in successive magnitudes of afterhyperpolarization (AH) that followed APs. Between the values of the extrema of AH trajectories and values of the instantaneous frequency of impulsation, we observed significant negative correlation. The mechanisms underlying the formation of

AH in spinal motoneurons and also the effects of this hyperpolarization on the characteristics of impulse activity generated by these cells are discussed.”
“Pyomyositis, a subacute bacterial infection of muscles, is uncommon in children. Three children with pyomyositis and multiple abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus are reported. The intercostal muscles were involved in one case, the paraspinal muscles in another and in the third there was associated septic arthritis.”
“An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among Apoptosis Compound Library research buy cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and Cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional

differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. The paper considers conceptual STI571 manufacturer and emotional mechanisms of language along with their role in the mind and Cultural evolution. Language evolution from primordial undifferentiated animal cries is discussed: while conceptual contents increase, emotional reduced. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, neural modeling fields, Mathematical results are related to cognitive science, linguistics, and psychology. Experimental evidence and theoretical arguments are discussed. Dynamics of the hierarchy-heterarchy Of human minds and cultures is formulated using mean-field approach and approximate equations are obtained. The knowledge instinct operating in the mind heterarchy leads to mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis determining ontological development and cultural evolution.

Histologic evaluations were carried out I month and 3 months afte

Histologic evaluations were carried out I month and 3 months after surgery. The biomechanical strength of the anastomosis was assessed along the longitudinal axis of the aortic segments using a tensile tester. Local compliance at the anastomotic site was also evaluated in the circumferential direction.\n\nResults. The media was significantly thinner in the PTFE group than in the control group (65.8% +/- 5.1% vs 95.0% +/- 9.3% of normal thickness; P < .05). Relative to the control group, the adventitial layer was significantly thinner in the PTFE group (42.3% +/- 8.2% of control; P < .05) but significantly

thicker in the PGA and the PGA + bFGF groups (117.2% +/- 11.3% and 134.1% +/- 14.2% of control, respectively; P < .05). There were more

vessels LY2603618 nmr in the adventitial layer in the PGA selleck chemicals + bFGF group than in the control, PTFE, and PGA groups (29.2 +/- 2.1/mm(2) vs 13.8 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.7, 17.0 +/- 1.3/mm(2), respectively; P < .01). There were no significant differences between the four groups in the failure force at anastomotic sites. Local compliance at the anastomotic site was higher in the PGA group than that in the PTFE group (11.6 +/- 1.6 10(-6) m(2)/N vs 5.6 +/- 1.9 10(-6) m(2)/N; P < .05).\n\nConclusion: Reinforcement of the experimental aortic wall with PTFE felt resulted in thinning of the media and adventitia and fewer vessels at the anastomotic site. These histologic changes were not observed when biodegradable felt was used. The bFGF failed to augment the modification of the aortic wall with the exception Crenolanib of increased adventitial vessel number. Biomechanical strength of the anastomosis along the longitudinal axis was comparable in all four groups; however, local vascular compliance was better in the biodegradable PGA felt group. (J Vase Surg 2010;51:194-202.)\n\nClinical Relevance: This investigation was conducted to extend our previous investigation on a biodegradable felt strip into more practical form before we proceed in a clinical application of the new, material. We hypothesized that sustaining compression of the aorta by the nonbiodegradable felt strip may cause structural

derangement and local ischemia on the aortic wall, which may lead to occurrence of late postoperative false aneurysm after aortic surgery. We attempted to find a clue for preventing adverse effects of reinforcement with a conventional felt strip. We have found that biodegradable felt prevented thinning of both the media and adventitia and increased adventitial vessels with increased vascular compliance at the aortic anastomotic sites.”
“Accurate quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic variational calculations are performed for the nine lowest members of the P-2(o) Rydberg series (1s(2)np(1), n = 2, …, 10) of the lithium atom. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is included in the calculations allowing for determining the isotopic shifts of the energy levels.

Studies demonstrate complex

functions of activated microg

Studies demonstrate complex

functions of activated microglia that can lead to either beneficial or detrimental outcomes, depending on the form and the timing of activation. Combined with genetic and environmental factors, overactivation and dysregulation of microglia cause progressive neurotoxic consequences which involve a vicious cycle of neuron injury and unregulated neuroinflammation. Thus, modulation of microglial activation appears to be a promising new therapeutic target. While current therapies do attempt to block activation of microglia, they indiscriminately Dorsomorphin purchase inhibit inflammation thus also curbing beneficial effects of inflammation and delaying recovery. Multiple signaling cascades, often cross-talking, are involved in every step of microglial activation. One of the Screening Library supplier key challenges is to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling cytokine expression and phagocytic activity, as well as cell-specific consequences of dysregulated cytokine expression. Further, a better understanding of how the integration of multiple cytokine signals influences the function or activity of individual microglia remains an important research objective to identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical intervention to promote repair.”
“The immunogenicity and safety of three novel host-range vaccines

containing deletions in the transmembrane domain of dengue virus serotype 2 (DV2) E glycoprotein were evaluated in African green monkeys. The shorter transmembrane

domains are capable www.selleckchem.com/products/ag-881.html of functionally spanning an insect but not a mammalian cell membrane, resulting in production of viral mutants that have reduced infectivity in mammalian hosts but efficient growth in insect cells. Groups of four monkeys received one dose each of test vaccine candidate with no booster immunization. After immunization, levels of viremia produced by each vaccine were determined by infectious center assay. Vaccine recipient immune response to wild-type DV2 challenge was measured on Day 57 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Two vaccines, DV2 Delta GVII and DV2G46013, generated neutralizing antibody in the range of 700-900 50% plaque reduction neutralization test units. All three vaccine strains decreased the length of viremia by at least two days. No safety concerns were identified.”
“Background: We have shown in a randomized controlled trial that vitamin D increases bone mass, lean mass and bone area in adolescent girls, but not boys. These increments may translate into improvements in bone geometry and therefore bone strength. This study investigated the impact of vitamin D on hip geometric dimensions from DXA-derived hip structural analyses in adolescents who participated in the trial.\n\nMethods: 167 girls (mean age 13.1 years) and 171 boys (mean age 12.

We found that Si-projecting vM1 pyramidal neurons strongly recrui

We found that Si-projecting vM1 pyramidal neurons strongly recruited vasointestinal peptide Selleckchem YM155 (VIP)-expressing GABAergic interneurons, a subset of serotonin receptor expressing interneurons. These VIP interneurons preferentially

inhibited somatostatin-expressing interneurons, neurons that target the distal dendrites of pyramidal cells. Consistent with this vM1-mediated disinhibitory circuit, the activity of VIP interneurons in vivo increased and that of somatostatin interneurons decreased during whisking. These changes in firing rates during whisking depended on vM1 activity. Our results suggest previously unknown circuitry by which inputs from motor cortex influence sensory processing in sensory cortex.”
“Epidemiologic Acalabrutinib in vitro studies have adapted to the genomics era by forming large international consortia to overcome issues of large data volume and small sample size. Whereas

both cohort and well-conducted case-control studies can inform disease risk from genetic susceptibility, cohort studies offer the additional advantages of assessing lifestyle and environmental exposure-disease time sequences often over a life course. Consortium involvement poses several logistical and ethical issues to investigators, some of which are unique to cohort studies, including the challenge to harmonize prospectively collected lifestyle and environmental exposures validly across individual studies. An open forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges of large-scale cohorts and their consortia was held in June 2009 in Banff, Canada, and is summarized in this report.”
“Study Design. A long-term, population based, retrospective follow-up study.\n\nObjective. To evaluate long-term outcomes of brace and surgical treatment for spinal deformities in patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD).\n\nSummary of Background Data. Literature on the brace treatment

and surgery of spinal deformities in patients with DD is limited.\n\nMethods. All patients with DD undergoing either brace treatment or surgery for spinal deformity with a minimum of 2 years follow-up were identified in our country. Eight patients had undergone brace treatment and 12 had been Selleck PXD101 treated operatively. Two patients had early progressive and the rest idiopathic-like scoliosis. Five patients underwent posterior only, 1 anterior only, and 6 anteroposterior surgery. Patients’ mean age at the beginning of brace treatment was 6.9 (range, 0.9-12.7) years and at the time of surgery 13.4 (range, 6.5-20.1) years. The follow-up time averaged 17 (range, 6.6-44.3) years for the brace and 14.0 (range, 2.1-37.2) years for the surgical treatment group. The radiographic follow-up rate was 100%.\n\nResults. Both thoracic and lumbar curves progressed during brace treatment (mean major curve progression 12%, range, -43%-53%).

The structural and morphological properties of the GaInP/GaAs sol

The structural and morphological properties of the GaInP/GaAs solar cell structure Cediranib supplier have been evaluated by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. In addition, the GaInP/GaAs solar cell device was fabricated to obtain electrical output parameters of the cells. For this purpose, the current voltage measurements of solar cell devices were carried out at room temperature under both dark and air mass 1.5 global radiation (AM1.5) using solar simulator. In addition, the electrical output parameters of the GaInP/GaAs solar cell structure with the AlGaAs tunnel junction are compared with the GaInP/GaAs solar cell

structure without the AlGaAs tunnel junction, and it is found that the integration of the tunnel junction into a solar cell structure improves the device performance by 48%. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) (E.C. is a metallopeptidase that cleaves the N-terminal methionine (Met) residue from some proteins. MAP is essential for growth of

several bacterial pathogens, making it a target for antibacterial drug discovery. MAP enzymes are also present in eukaryotic cells, and one is a target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. To screen large compound libraries Selleckchem Cyclosporin A for MAP inhibitors as the starting point for drug discovery, a high-throughput-compatible assay is valuable. Here the authors describe a novel assay, which detects the Met product of MAP-catalyzed peptide cleavage by coupling it to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and inorganic phosphate (P-i) by SAM synthetase (MetK) combined with inorganic pyrophosphatase. The three P-i ions produced for each Met consumed are detected using Malachite Green/molybdate reagent. This assay can use any unmodified peptide MAP substrate with an N-terminal Met. The assay was used to measure kinetic constants for Escherichia coli MAP using Mn2+ as the activator and the peptide Met-Gly-Met-Met as the substrate, as well as to measure

the potency of a MAP inhibitor. A Mn2+ buffer is described that can be used to prevent free Mn2+ depletion by chelating compounds from interfering in screens for MAP inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening 2011; 16: 494-505)”
“Eukaryotic transcriptional AC220 in vitro repressors function by recruiting large coregulatory complexes that target histone deacetylase enzymes to gene promoters and enhancers. Transcriptional repression complexes, assembled by the corepressor NCoR and its homolog SMRT, are crucial in many processes, including development and metabolic physiology. The core repression complex involves the recruitment of three proteins, HDAC3, GPS2 and TBL1, to a highly conserved repression domain within SMRT and NCoR. We have used structural and functional approaches to gain insight into the architecture and biological role of this complex.

However, once the P-factor rose above 1189, hemicellulose sugars

However, once the P-factor rose above 1189, hemicellulose sugars were significantly degraded into furans; pulp and paper properties were also deteriorated due to cellulose degradation, lignin deposition and condensation. Thus, considering the different end use of pulps, the performance of an HWE-based biorefinery could be balanced by its HWE severity. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report a rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma arising in a 52-year-old man with biopsy-proven aggressive polymyositis, who had cardiac involvement, progressive bulbar β-Nicotinamide manufacturer symptoms, and died 11 months post diagnosis

due to multiorgan failure. Using a multimodality approach including immunohistochemistry, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array analysis, and high-throughput sequencing of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of T-cell receptor beta (TCR beta) genes, our study demonstrates a molecular link between polymyositis and T-cell lymphoma, and provides evidence of the rapid and possibly late occurrence of genomic instability during neoplastic transformation of an oligoclonal T-cell population. Immunohistochemical

analysis revealed loss of CD5, CD7, and CD8 antigen expression in autopsy tissue samples, as well as the occurrence of aberrant CD56 expression, not seen in pre-mortem biopsies, supporting the emergence of a neoplastic T-cell population. Multiplex polymerase GSK690693 chain reaction and next-generation sequencing of the TCR beta CDR3 region displayed two unique T-cell clones in both the diagnostic biopsy confirming polymyositis and the autopsy muscle tissue exhibiting T-cell lymphoma, linking the two pathological processes. SNP-array analysis revealed complex genomic abnormalities at autopsy but not in the pre-mortem muscle biopsies displaying polymyositis, confirming malignant transformation of the oligoclonal T-cell infiltrate. Our findings raise the possibility that clinically aggressive polymyositis might

represent a preneoplastic PKC inhibitor condition in some instances, similar to certain other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.”
“Humanin (HN) is a recently identified neuroprotective and antiapoptotic peptide derived from a portion of the mitochondrial MT-RNR2 gene. We provide bioinformatic and expression data suggesting the existence of 13 MT-RNR2-like nuclear loci predicted to maintain the open reading frames of 15 distinct full-length HN-like peptides. At least ten of these nuclear genes are expressed in human tissues, and respond to staurosporine (STS) and beta-carotene. Sequence comparisons of the nuclear HN isoforms and their homologues in other species reveal two consensus motifs, encompassing residues 5-11 (GFS/NCLLL), and 14-19 (SEIDLP/S).