I from 1995 to August 2008 The diagnostic Studies included ultra

I from 1995 to August 2008. The diagnostic Studies included ultrasonography, intravenous urography, renal scans, and, finally, vaginography with contrast if the renal scans could not detect the poorly functioning

kidneys.\n\nRESULTS Intravenous Urography showed a poorly functioning kidney in I click here patient. Another 10 poorly functioning kidneys were revealed by technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan, but 7 kidneys were not identifiable using contrast, ultrasonography, or radionuclide. Of these 7 patients, 6 vaginal ectopic ureters were detected using contrast vaginography. All 18 dysplastic kidneys were surgically removed.\n\nCONCLUSIONS The results of the Study have demonstrated

the satisfactory diagnostic value of vaginography as an imaging technique to detect the dysplastic kidney draining by a single ectopic ureter. UROLOGY 74: 314-317, 2009. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.”
“Background: Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data.\n\nResults: TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically MMP inhibitor ATM Kinase Inhibitor supplier identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different

filter parameters according to their own preferences.\n\nConclusions: TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner.”
“Mitochondrial disorders are caused by impairment of the respiratory chain. Psychiatric features often represent part of their clinical spectrum. However, the real incidence of psychiatric disorders in these diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric involvement in a group of patients with mitochondrial disorders and without already diagnosed mental illness.

Because the rate of crossover favoring SCS beyond 6 months would

Because the rate of crossover favoring SCS beyond 6 months would bias a long-term randomized group comparison, we present all outcomes TH-302 Others inhibitor in patients who continued SCS from randomization to 24 months and, for illustrative purposes, the primary outcome (>50% leg pain relief) per randomization and final treatment.\n\nMETHODS:

Patients provided data on pain, quality of life, function, pain medication use, treatment satisfaction, and employment status. Investigators documented adverse events. Data analysis included inferential comparisons and multivariate regression analyses.\n\nRESULTS: The 42 patients continuing SCS (of 52 randomized to SCS) reported significantly improved leg pain relief (P < 0.0001), quality of life (P <= 0.01), and functional capacity (P = 0.0002); and 13 patients (31%) required a device-related surgical revision. At 24 months, of 46 of 52 patients randomized to SCS and 41 of 48 randomized to CMM who were available, the primary outcome was achieved by 17 (37%)

randomized to SCS versus 1 (2%) to CMM SN-38 in vitro (P = 0.003) and by 34 (47%) of 72 patients who received SCS as final treatment versus 1 (7%) of 15 for CMM (P = 0.02).\n\nCONCLUSION: At 24 months of SCS treatment, selected failed back surgery syndrome patients reported sustained pain relief, clinically important improvements in functional capacity and health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with treatment.”
“In seasonal breeding species, the gene encoding for the melatonin MT(1) receptor (oMT(1)) is highly polymorphic and numerous data have reported the existence of an association between an allele of the receptor and a marked expression of the seasonality

GW4869 of reproduction in ewes. This allele called “m” (previously named “-” allele) carries a mutation leading to the absence of a MnlI restriction site as opposed to the “M” allele (previously named “+” allele) carrying the MnlI restriction site (previously “+” allele). This allows the determination of the three genotypes “M/M” (+/+),”M/m” (+/-) and “m/m” (-/-). This mutation is conservative and could therefore not be causal. However, it is associated with another mutation introducing the change of a valine to an isoleucine in the fifth transmembrane domain of the receptor. Homozygous “M/M” and “m/m” animals consequently express structurally different receptors respectively named oMT(1) Val(220) and oMT(1) Ile(220). The objective of this study was to test whether these polymorphic variants are functionally different. To achieve this goal, we characterized the binding properties and the transduction pathways associated with both variants of the receptors. Using a pharmacological approach, no variation in binding parameters between the two receptors when transiently expressed in COS-7.

The P-scale consisting of 18 items was administered in the local

The P-scale consisting of 18 items was administered in the local language (Hindi) and used by the Counsellor along with relevant clinical and socioeconomic details. Results There were 84 women and 166 men, distributed in all the five categories. Overall, 142 patients out of 250 (56.8%) had no participation restrictions; 39 (15.6%) had mild social restrictions; 20 (8.0%) had moderate, 28 (11.2%) had severe and 21 (84%) had extreme participation restrictions. Paradoxically, there were some cases without severe deformity who are also subjected to restrictions.

Patients in Grades AZD6094 nmr 0a and 0b, had practically no severe or even moderate restrictions in their social participation, but their perceived stigma was high, requiring suitable leprosy education, family counselling and coping skills to feel confident that they were capable of normal work like any of their peers. Counselling became more intensive in Grade 1 and

for almost all in Grade 2, who experienced moderate to severe restrictions in meeting new people, participating in social activities and indulging in socioeconomic activities. Counselling for such groups of patients required multiple approaches, including in-depth leprosy education for regular treatment, self-care measures, mobilisation of coping skills, self-confidence and acceptance counselling, and follow-up counselling for those released from treatment after multidrug therapy. Conclusions &

Recommendations The P-scale BLZ945 order provides essential information JNK-IN-8 to enable a Counsellor to offer more meaningful and balanced counselling to leprosyaffected people, especially in coping with enacted stigma. Education oriented counselling and psychological supportive counselling are necessary adjuncts for clinical care and treatment. Client-oriented counselling allows clients to freely express their fears and anxieties, and promotes coping skills and confidence.”
“AKT3 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3) is located at chromosome 1q44 and encodes a 479 amino acid protein, a member of the protein kinase B (PKB) family. This gene is frequently involved in 1q44 deletion syndrome in patients with microcephaly, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. Phenotype and genotype studies of patients with 1q44 deletion syndrome have suggested that deletion of the AKT3 gene is responsible for the microcephaly in these patients. However, the phenotype of pure AKT3 deletion has not been studied. We report on a 1q44 deletion involving only AKT3 in a boy and his father. The boy has microcephaly, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic features. His father does not have microcephaly and is of normal intelligence.

The 10(5)-fold rate acceleration by Mg2+-protein interactions

The 10(5)-fold rate acceleration by Mg2+-protein interactions this website therefore requires additional favorable protein-metal couplings. Examples include longer-range, i.e., allosteric, interactions previously illustrated by the remote F371 mutation, which both reduces k(cat) and enhances catalytic assist by Mn2+, relative to that by Mg2+. These data support a model linking metal-assisted phosphoryl transfer catalysis to domain movement, and hence to free-energy transduction

in a broad range of enzymes.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured in [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) for patients with non-disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).\n\nMaterials and methods: From January 2002 to July 2008, 371 NPC patients who underwent F-18-FDG-PET before radical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were recruited. The SUVmax was recorded NCT-501 ic50 for the primary tumor (SUVmax-T) and neck lymph nodes (SUVmax-N).\n\nResults: The median follow-up was 64

months. The optimal cutoff value was 9.3 for SUVmax-T and 7.4 for SUVmax-N. Patients with a lower SUVmax-T or SUVmax-N had a significantly better 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but showed no significant difference in local control or regional control. Patients were divided into four groups by SUVmax, as follows: (a) both lower SUVmax-T and SUVmax-N, (b) higher SUVmax-T only, (c) higher SUVmax-N only, and d) both higher SUVmax-T and SUVmax-N. There were significant differences between these four groups in 5-year DMFS: (a) 95.5%, (b) 90.0%, (c) 83.3%, and (d) 79.9%, respectively (p = 0.004). HM781-36B nmr When looking at the stage of disease, the 5-year DMFSs in group a, b, c, d were 96.9%, 94.6%, 97.4%, and 84.3%, respectively in stage I-III patients (p = 0.037) and were 91.6%, 82.9%, 68.5%, and 76.7% in stage IVA-B patients (p = 0.145). Using

multivariate analysis, the SUVmax grouping, gender, and stage were independent factors for DMFS.\n\nConclusion: The SUVmax of the primary tumor and neck lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors for DMFS in NPC patients treated with IMRT. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The primary goals of this critical literature review were to determine whether revision rates of primary total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis differ based on the underlying associated risk factors and diagnoses, whether the outcomes of this procedure have improved over the past two decades, and to compare outcomes based on study level of evidence. A systematic literature review yielded 67 reports representing 3,277 hips in 2,593 patients who had a total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

Jaffe’s theory,

Jaffe’s theory, GDC-0068 ic50 formulated in 1913 quantifies initial recombination by elemental processes, providing an analytical (closed) solution. Here, we investigate the effect of the underlying charged carrier distribution around a carbon ion track. The fundamental partial differential equation, formulated by Jaffe, is solved numerically

taking into account more realistic charge carrier distributions by the use of a computer program (Gascoigne 3D). The investigated charge carrier distributions are based on track structure models, which follow a 1/r(2) behavior at larger radii and show a constant value at small radii. The results of the calculations are compared to the initial formulation and to data obtained in experiments using carbon ion beams. Results. The comparison between the experimental data and the calculations shows that the initial approach made by Jaffe is able to reproduce the effects of initial recombination. The amorphous track structure based charge carrier distribution does not reproduce the experimental data well. A small additional correction in the assessment of the saturation current or charge is suggested by the data. Conclusion. The established model of columnar recombination reproduces the experimental

data well, whereas the extensions using track structure models do not show such an agreement. Additionally, the effect of initial recombination on the saturation curve (i.e. Jaffe plot) does not follow a linear behavior as suggested selleck products by current dosimetry protocols, Repotrectinib purchase therefore higher order corrections (such as the investigated ones) might be necessary.”
“Below S, Konkel A, Zeeck C, Muller C, Kohler C, Engelmann S, Hildebrandt JP. Virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus induce Erk-MAP kinase activation and c-Fos expression in S9 and 16HBE14o- human airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296: L470-L479, 2009. First published December 19, 2008; doi: 10.1152/ajplung.90498.2008.-Part of the innate defense of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is regulated secretion of salt,

water, and mucus as well as defensins and cytokines involving MAP kinase activation and alterations in early gene expression. We tested two different types of immortalized human airway epithelial cells (S9, 16HBE14o-) for activation of Erk-type MAP kinases and for expression of c-Fos on treatment with Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatants from the stationary growth phase [optical density (OD)(540nm) = 10] or with recombinant S. aureus hemolysins A and B (Hla, Hlb). OD10 supernatants activated Erk-type MAP kinases and c-Fos expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Hla induced Erk-type kinase phosphorylation in S9 but not in 16HBE14o- cells. Hlb induced Erk activation in either cell type.

However, results for the sentence test in

However, results for the sentence test in PP2 molecular weight noise

demonstrated improvements with 500 or 900 pps/ch stimulation rates in seven out of the eight subjects. Although there was not a close relationship between each subject’s subjective preference and the rate program that provided best speech perception, most subjects indicated a preference for 500 pps/ch rate in noise.”
“Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in athletic and physically active populations, and can result in significant functional disability. Female athletes in particular have been found to be at a relatively high risk for noncontact ACL injuries. Many risk factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, have been identified. Although some individuals may be treated nonoperatively with an aggressive rehabilitation program, athletes desiring to return to physical activities that require use of the ACL need surgical reconstruction. Surgical techniques remain controversial in regard to tunnel placement and optimal graft choices. Recent literature advocates a

more oblique ACL reconstruction to more closely recreate normal knee kinematics and eliminate pathologic rotational laxity. A supervised and intensive rehabilitation program is necessary to achieve desired results. Anatomic and neuromuscular Panobinostat clinical trial risk factors, oft en gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs.”
“Acute ascent to high altitudes beyond 2400m (300 feet) can cause acute mountain sickness (AMS) and may develop into life-threatening complications such as high altitude cerebral (HACE) and pulmonary edema (HAPE). We report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) without other organ involvement in a previously healthy young man after sudden high altitude exposure of up to 5200m. Acute systemic hypoxia as well as prolonged see more renal hypoperfusion may be responsible for his kidney injury.”
“Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are primary alcohols commonly used as solvents in numerous household and industrial products. Exposure to EGEs has been correlated with delayed encephalopathy, metabolic acidosis, sub-fertility and spermatotoxicity in humans. In addition, they also

cause teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, hemolysis, etc., in various animal models. Metabolism EGEs parallels ethanol metabolism, i.e., EGEs are first converted to 2-alkoxy acetaldehydes (EGE aldehydes) by alcohol dehydrogenases, and then to alkoxyacetic acids by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The acid metabolite of EGEs is considered responsible for toxicities associated with EGEs. The role of human ALDHs in EGE metabolism is not clear; accordingly, we have investigated the ability of five different human ALDHs (ALDH1A1, ALDH2, ALDH3A1, ALDH5A1 and ALDH9A1) to catalyze the oxidation of various EGE aldehydes. The EGE aldehydes used in this study were synthesized via Swern oxidation. All of the human ALDHs were purified from human cDNA clones over-expressing these enzymes in E. coli.


“A new reagent (I(2)/NaNO(2)) for the iodination of the ar


“A new reagent (I(2)/NaNO(2)) for the iodination of the aromatic ring of phenols has been discovered. The reaction proceeds at room temperature in 1.5-6 hours. In the presence of this reagent, iodinated compounds are regioselectively formed in significant yields from the corresponding substrates.”
“Background During development of the enteric nervous system, a subpopulation of enteric

neuron precursors transiently expresses catecholaminergic properties. The progeny of these transiently Dinaciclib mw catecholaminergic (TC) cells have not been fully characterized. Methods We combined in vivo Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping with phenotypic analysis to fate-map enteric neuron subtypes arising from tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing cells. Key Results Less than 3% of the total (Hu+) neurons in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine of adult mice are generated from transiently TH-expressing cells. Around 50% of the neurons generated from transiently TH-expressing cells are calbindin neurons, but their progeny also include calretinin, neurofilament-M, and serotonin neurons. However, only 30% of the serotonin neurons and small subpopulations (<10%) of the calbindin, calretinin, and neurofilament-M neurons are generated from TH-expressing

cells; only 0.2% of nitric oxide synthase neurons arise from TH-expressing cells. Conclusions & Inferences Transiently, catecholaminergic cells give rise to subpopulations VS-6063 concentration of multiple enteric neuron subtypes, but the majority Tariquidar of

each of the neuron subtypes arises from non-TC cells.”
“Areas covered: This review examines the anti-tumor mechanism of action of IL-12 and the development of IL-12 as a potential therapeutic option in a variety of malignancies. It also reviews the immunogenicity of ovarian cancer and covers preclinical and clinical trials that have contributed to the advancement of IL-12 as a potential therapy for ovarian malignancy. The obstacles that researchers have overcome and currently face regarding the use of IL-12 in clinical ovarian cancer trials are also discussed.\n\nExpert opinion: IL-12, as a therapeutic modality, is mechanistically logical and shows great promise in preclinical trials. Further clinical studies are warranted to optimize the potential of IL-12 as a treatment strategy for ovarian cancer.”
“Recently the second order reassigned local polynomial periodogram (LPP) has been reported to show some desirable properties for signal representation in the time-frequency domain. In this paper, the higher-order reassigned LPPs and their properties are discussed. With the definition of the modified Wigner-Ville distribution, the reassignment operators of the third, fourth and the arbitrary higher-order reassigned LPP are defined and derived.

The acceptable evolution of herbicide concentration in surface wa

The acceptable evolution of herbicide concentration in surface waters from 2002 to 2010 is associated to the current regional and national regulations and actions, which should be maintained. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Numerous studies have

demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. www.selleckchem.com/products/17-AAG(Geldanamycin).html Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ

cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased Compound C expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The

in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults.”
“RNA folding is the most essential process underlying RNA function. While significant progress has been made in understanding the forces driving RNA folding in vitro, exploring the rules governing intracellular RNA structure formation is still in its infancy. The cellular environment hosts a great diversity of factors that potentially influence RNA folding in vivo. For example, the nature of transcription and translation is known to shape the folding landscape of RNA molecules. Trans-acting factors such as proteins, GW4869 order RNAs and metabolites, among others, are also able to modulate the structure and thus the fate of an RNA. Here we summarize the ongoing efforts to uncover how RNA folds in living cells. (C) 2011 Landes Bioscience.”
“Objective: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer mortality. This article summarizes the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and breast cancer in white European women compared with racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, we examine the association between obesity and breast cancer within socioeconomic disparities.

In human mast cells, C5a promoted the production of the neutrophi

In human mast cells, C5a promoted the production of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin-8, and recruitment of neutrophils at 24 hours after serum administration was impaired in C5aR(-/-) mice, suggesting that enhanced neutrophil chemoattractant production underlies the requirement for C5aR on mast cells in arthritis.\n\nConclusion. Stimulation

via C5aR is required to unleash the proinflammatory activity of synovial mast cells in immune complex arthritis, albeit via a mechanism that is distinct from C5a-modulated expression of Fc gamma R.”
“The fermentation process of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) from L-sorbose was developed using a two-stage continuous fermentation system. The mixed culture of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare DSM 4025 and Bacillus megaterium DSM 4026 produced 90 g/L of 2KGA from 120 g/L of L-sorbose at the dilution rate of 0.01 see more h(-1) in a single-stage continuous fermentation process. But after the production period was beyond 150 h, the significant decrease of 2KGA productivity was observed. When the non-spore forming bacteria Xanthomonas maltophilia IFO 12692

was used instead of B. megaterium DSM 4026 as a partner strain for K. vulgare DSM 4025, the 2KGA productivity was significantly improved in a two-stage continuous culture mode, in which two fermentors of the same size and volume were connected in series. In this mode, with two sets of 3-L jar fermentors, the steady state could be continued to over 1,331.5 h DMH1 order at least, when the dilution rates were 0.0382 h(-1) and 0.0380 hour(-1), respectively, for the first and second fermentors. The overall productivity was calculated to be 2.15

g/L/h at 113.1 g/L and a molar conversion yield of 90.1%. In the up-scaling fermentation to 30-L jar fermentors, 118.5 g/L of 2KGA was produced when dilution rates in both stages were 0.0430 hour(-1), and the overall productivity was calculated to be 2.55 g/L/h.”
“Evidence has emerged that the clinical benefit of tamoxifen is related to the functional status of the hepatic metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). CYP2D6 is the key enzyme responsible for the generation HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor of the potent tamoxifen metabolite, endoxifen. Multiple studies have examined the relationship of CYP2D6 status to breast cancer outcomes in tamoxifen-treated women; the majority of studies demonstrated that women with impaired CYP2D6 metabolism have lower endoxifen concentrations and a greater risk of breast cancer recurrence. As a result, practitioners must be aware that some of the most commonly prescribed medications co-administered with tamoxifen interfere with CYP2D6 function, thereby reducing endoxifen concentrations and potentially increasing the risk of breast cancer recurrence.

In response to infection or injury, HMGB1 is actively secreted by

In response to infection or injury, HMGB1 is actively secreted by innate immune cells and/or released Vactosertib in vivo passively by injured or damaged cells. Thus, serum and tissue levels of HMGB1 are elevated during infection, and especially during sepsis. Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response

to disease and the most severe complication of infections, and HMGB1 acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in delayed endotoxin lethality and sepsis. Furthermore, the targeting of HMGB1 with antibodies or specific antagonists has been found to have protective effects in established preclinical inflammatory disease models, including models of lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. In the present study, emerging evidence supporting Selleck BLZ945 the notion that extracellular HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory danger signal is reviewed, and the potential therapeutic effects of a wide array of HMGB1 inhibitors agents in sepsis and ischemic injury are discussed.”
“OBJECTIVE: The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach is a valid alternative for treatment of lesions

in the clivus. The major limitation of this approach is a significant lateral extension of the tumor. We aim to identify a safe corridor through the occipital condyle to provide more lateral exposure of the foramen magnum.\n\nMETHODS: Sixteen parameters were measured in 25 adult skulls to analyze the exact extension of a safe corridor through the condyle. Endonasal endoscopic anatomic dissections were carried out in nine colored latex-injected heads.\n\nRESULTS: Drilling at the lateral inferior clival area exposed two compartments

divided by the hypoglossal canal: the jugular tubercle (superior) and the condylar (inferior). Completion of a unilateral ventromedial condyle resection opens a 3.5 mm (transverse length) x 10 mm (vertical length) lateral surgical corridor, facilitating direct access to the vertebral artery at its dural entry point into the posterior fossa. The supracondylar groove is a reliable landmark for locating the hypoglossal canal in relation to the condyle. The hypoglossal canal is used as the posterior limit of the condyle removal to preserve more than half of the condylar mass. The transjugular tubercle approach is accomplished by drilling above the hypoglossal canal, and increases the vertical length of the lateral JNK-IN-8 manufacturer surgical corridor by 8 mm, allowing for visualization of the distal cisternal segment of the lower cranial nerves.\n\nCONCLUSION: The transcondylar and transjugular tubercle “far medial” expansions of the endoscopic endonasal approach to the inferior third of the clivus provide a unique surgical corridor to the ventrolateral surface of the ponto- and cervicomedullary junctions.”
“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of progressive liver disease encompassing simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and, ultimately, cirrhosis.