Mike Rudnicki (University of Ottawa) and ubiquitous Hjv−/− mice (

Mike Rudnicki (University of Ottawa) and ubiquitous Hjv−/− mice (in mixed 129S6/SvEvTac;C57BL/6 background) from Dr. Nancy Andrews (Duke University). Only male animals were used for experiments, housed in macrolone cages (up to 5 mice/cage, 12:12-hour CH5424802 in vitro light-dark cycle: 7 AM to 7 PM; 22 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5% humidity) according to standard institutional guidelines. The mice had free access to water and food, a standard diet containing approximately 226 mg of iron per kg (Teklad Global 18% protein rodent diet, TD 2018, Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN). Experimental procedures

were approved by the Animal Care Committee of McGill University (protocol 4966). Transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum iron, and ferritin were measured with a Roche Hitachi 917 Chemistry Analyzer at the Biochemistry Department of the Jewish General Hospital. Hepatic and splenic nonheme iron was measured by the ferrozine assay, as described.33, 34 Results are expressed as micrograms of iron per gram of dry tissue weight. Tissue specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. To visualize ferric iron deposits, deparaffinized tissue sections were stained with Perls’ Prussian blue using the Accustain Iron Stain kit (Sigma). Total RNA was isolated from frozen tissues using

the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen) for the liver and the RNeasy Fibrous Tissue Mini kit (Qiagen) for the skeletal muscles and heart; its quality was assessed by determining the 260/280 nm absorbance ratios and by agarose Selleck R428 gel electrophoresis. qPCR was performed by using gene-specific primers (Table 1B),

as described,35 with β-actin or ribosomal protein S18 (rS18) as housekeeping genes for normalization. Duodenal membrane-enriched protein lysates were prepared as in36 and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on a 10% gel; the samples (30 μg of protein) did not contain β-mercaptoethanol Bumetanide and were not boiled before loading on the gel. Following transfer of the proteins onto nitrocellulose filters (BioRad), the blots were saturated with 10% nonfat milk in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.1% (v/v) Tween-20 (PBS-T) and probed with a 1:1,000 diluted ferroportin antibody.35 After three washes with PBS-T, the blots were incubated with 1:5,000 diluted peroxidase-coupled goat antirabbit IgG (Sigma). The peroxidase signal was detected by enhanced chemiluminescence with the Western Lightning ECL kit (Perkin Elmer). Quantitative data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Student’s t test with GraphPad Prism software (v. 5.0d). A probability value P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We introduced loxP sites flanking exons 2-4 of the Hfe2 gene (encompassing the entire open reading frame of Hjv messenger RNA [mRNA]) and generated a mouse line carrying floxed Hfe2f/f alleles (Fig. 1A).

An analogous scenario may apply to the evolution of constitutive

An analogous scenario may apply to the evolution of constitutive polyembryony in Dasypus armadillos (Loughry et al., 1998). In these species, the initial reproductive bottleneck is an oddly configured uterus with only one blastocyst implantation site. Polyembryonic divisions early in a female’s pregnancy then give rise to multiple clonemate offspring that will be housed within her later-enlarged uterus. Thus, for parasitic wasps and armadillos alike, polyembryony might be interpreted as an opportunistic reproductive

tactic that makes the best of the available situation for both parental and offspring genetic fitness. In each case, a severe constraint on offspring numbers exists at the outset of each ‘pregnancy’, but a spacious developmental niche (host caterpillar and female uterus, respectively) arises later that can be exploited by multiple polyembryos. BVD-523 cost Furthermore, for the co-housed siblings, competition should be minimized and

cooperation fostered because the broodmates are also clonemates (Hamilton, 1964; Hardy, 1995; Giron et al., 2004). If these speculations about the adaptive significance of polyembryony are correct, they might conform to the broader notion that polyembryony tends to evolve when offspring have more information about optimal clutch size than do their parents (Godfray, 1994; Craig et al., 1997). When progeny are in the best position to assess the environmental resources available to them, polyembryony would be selectively advantageous to them https://www.selleckchem.com/HIF.html (as well as to the genetic fitness of their parents) if the polyembryos can adjust the extent of their clonal proliferation

accordingly. In any event, constitutive polyembryony again illustrates how biological oddities can instruct broader evolutionary thought. This last point about clonality provides an obvious segue into the next section that will expand on the topic Axenfeld syndrome of hermaphroditism. Inbreeding (the mating of kin) tends to decrease genetic variation in a sexual pedigree and in the extreme becomes another potential evolutionary route to ‘clonality’. Selfing is a most intense form of inbreeding. Consider, for example, the mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), nature’s only hermaphroditic vertebrate that routinely mates with itself (self-fertilizes). Each mature dual-sex individual houses an internal ovotestis that simultaneously produces ova and sperm that unite within the fish’s body before the zygotes are shed to inaugurate the next generation of self-fertilizers. When continued generation after generation, selfing soon leads to the emergence of genetic strains each composed of multiple individuals so genetically uniform as to be, in effect, clonally identical (Harrington & Kallman, 1968; Turner et al., 1992; Mackiewicz et al., 2006a).

849), respectively

The optimal cut-off HBsAg level and H

849), respectively.

The optimal cut-off HBsAg level and HBsAg reduction to predict HBsAg seroclearance were <200 IU/mL (sensitivity, 84.2%; specificity, 73.4%) and 0.5 log IU/mL/year (sensitivity, 62.8%; specificity, 88.7%), respectively. For patients with HBsAg levels ≥200 IU/mL, an annual 0.5-log reduction was highly predictive of subsequent HBsAg seroclearance (AUROC, 0.867; 95% CI: 0.778-0.956). Conclusion: To conclude, serum HBsAg <200 IU/mL and 0.5-log reduction in HBsAg were predictive of HBsAg seroclearance within 3 years of follow-up. These parameters may serve as good indicators for the consideration of treatment duration and cessation for chronic hepatitis B. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:812–819) Seroclearance of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during the natural history of chronic hepatitis 17-AAG chemical structure B (CHB) is associated with favorable long-term Veliparib mouse outcomes,1, 2 although the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains possible.3-5 The incidence of HBsAg seroclearance ranges between 0.5% and 2.26% per year.3, 5, 6 HBsAg seroclearance is the ultimate treatment

endpoint for CHB, but occurs only infrequently after pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)7 or nucleoside analog therapy.8-10 The recent development of serum HBsAg quantification has provided an additional tool in monitoring both treated and untreated CHB patients.11 Serum HBsAg titers were initially proposed as a surrogate marker for hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently

closed circular DNA. But, a recent study found such a correlation to exist only in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive, and not in HBeAg-negative, disease.12 Several recent studies have highlighted the differences in HBsAg titers throughout the natural history of CHB, but are limited by their cross-sectional nature.13, 14 A recent longitudinal study demonstrated the variations in HBsAg levels in different disease phases of CHB. A serum HBsAg reduction of more than 1 log reflects improved immune control and increases the probability Thymidylate synthase of HBsAg seroclearance.15 Two recent studies from Asia followed up 390 and 103 HBeAg-negative patients, respectively, and found a HBsAg level of <100 IU/mL predictive of eventual HBsAg seroclearance.16, 17 These longitudinal studies, however, were all limited by the very small number of patients with HBsAg seroclearance (n < 20). Another recent study consisting of 46 patients with HBsAg seroclearance suggested the optimal level to predict HBsAg seroclearance to be HBsAg <200 IU/mL.18 However, the relationship between HBsAg and HBV DNA preceding HBsAg seroclearance and the possible combined use of both markers in predicting HBsAg seroclearance have not been studied. The value of serum HBV DNA levels in predicting HBsAg seroclearance remains controversial.

Moreover, both captive and wild data probably underestimate actua

Moreover, both captive and wild data probably underestimate actual maximum life spans because in the field the recovery of very old, banded birds requires considerable luck, and in captivity mortality can result from accidents, animal care practices and inappropriate living conditions rather than senescence (e.g. Sherman & Jarvis, 2002). We were forced to use a single mass and longevity datum per species by lack of other information: intra-specific variation in life spans has been quantified for

only a few birds (e.g. Fox et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2008; Keller et al., 2008), and in the 11 data bases we buy LDK378 consulted (Appendices 1 and 2) body masses of males and females typically were not separated and the sex of the longest-lived individual usually was not specified. All our analyses assume that, like noise in a signal, deficiencies in the quality and quantity of maximum longevity data for individual species would increase variance and mask associations with ecological, physiological and behavioral variables that actually exist, but they would not generate associations that do not in fact occur. For

each species in our longevity data base we sought information on eight categorical variables that have been hypothesized to affect extrinsic mortality and senescence, using the following nine data sources: Cramp & Perrins (1977–1994), Animal Diversity Web (1995–2006), del Hoyo et al. (1997), Juniper (1998), Global Raptor Information Network (1999–2007), Longevity Records (2002), Birds in Backyards (2005), SCH727965 supplier Birds of North America Online (2005) and NatureServe (2008). These variables were: (A) Diet– Each species was categorized based on its typical diet as being a: (1) Carnivore; (2) Herbivore; (3) Omnivore. Ultimately, information on both continuous variables (maximum longevity and mean mass) and all eight categorical variables was available for 470 species (Appendix 2). This represents almost 5% of the world’s avifauna, and

we believe it is the largest data Plasmin base of its kind available. The Passeriformes was the most speciose order in our data base, containing complete information on 179 species in 17 families. We included this order in our comprehensive analysis and also analyzed the Passeriformes separately, to see if intra- and inter-order results corresponded; no other orders could be analyzed separately due to insufficient sample sizes. Initially we had planned to include ‘age at first reproduction’ in our multivariate analyses. However, we decided not to do so for two reasons. First, preliminary exploration of our data base revealed that age at first reproduction was so tightly correlated with mean mass (F=11.1727, d.f.=1314, P<1.29E−24) that the two variables could not be treated as independent. Second, age at first reproduction is more appropriately considered an effect rather than a primary cause of the environmental factors generally hypothesized to underlie variations in life spans and senescence rates.

5%), haematological malignancies (n = 3; 7%), skin carcinoma (n =

5%), haematological malignancies (n = 3; 7%), skin carcinoma (n = 3; 7%) and thyroid cancer (n = 1; 2.5%). The majority of GISTs occurred in stomach (64%) and small intestine (31%), with rare occurrence in rectum (2.5%) or esophagus (2.5%). In 78%, GIST were asymptomatic and were accidentally found during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures for associated malignancies. GIST’s size ranged from 0.1 cm to 9 cm (mean size: 2.3 cm) and all of them buy FK866 had a low (<5/50 HPFs) or no mitotic rate. CD117 was expressed in 84% and CD34 in 67%. Thirty tumors (84%) were of no- very low- or low-risk and six tumors of intermediate. Imatinib

mesylate was administered to 2 patients. During follow-up (range 3–140 months, mean: 62 months), one patient suffered from distant metastases of GIST. Seven patients (19%) died of associated malignancies and three patients (8%) of other non-tumor-associated cause, but noone died of GIST. Conclusion: The coexistence of GIST with other malignancies is higher than selleck inhibitor previously reported and should draw attention of clinicians towards these incidental findings. Little

is known about the possible common origin of GIST and associated malignancies. The prognosis in these patients is usually determined by the other malignancy and not significantly influenced by the GIST. Therefore treatment algorithms should be focused on the prognostically relevant malignancy. Key Word(s): 1. GIST; 2. malignancy; 3. imatinib mesylate; 4. coexistence; Presenting Author: HUAN-FA HSIEH Additional Authors: CHENG-HSIANG HSU, CHI-TIEN LIU, WAI-SANG KUAN Corresponding Author: HUAN-FA HSIEH Affiliations: Yeezen General Hospital Objective: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of gastrointestinal tract is a very rare, difficult

and confusing tumor to diagnosis, particularly in early asymptomatic stage. The nomenclature is also complicated until 2010 when WHO divided the NETs into 5 categories: well-differentiated endocrine tumors (Grade 1, carcinoid), well-differentiated (Grade 2) endocrine carcinomas, poorly-differentiated endocrine (grade 3, small cell) carcinomas, mixed endocrine-exocrine tumors, and tumor like lesions. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is also a very rare and relatively http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/pembrolizumab.html new diagnostic entity that has been the focus of considerable clinical and laboratory research in the last 10 years. Both NET and GIST are usually subclinical and asymptomatic when they are small-sized. Herein we report a case with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) who had these two extremely rare tumors coexisting near the gastric pylorus. Methods: This 80-year-old male who had long-term history of NIDDM, HCVD, PUD and cervical spondylosis, underwent emergently exploratory laparotomy for PPU with hemorrhage. Hemigastrectomy with Billroth No-II anastomosis and tube duodenostomy was carried out due to markable deformity of pylorus and a 2-cm blowout perforation at duodenal bulb.

However, complete disruption of the main pancreatic duct or non-b

However, complete disruption of the main pancreatic duct or non-bridging of the ductal leak in the presence of a tight stricture or obstruction are limiting factors for achieving successful endotherapy, irrespective of stent or NPD.4 In this issue Pritelivir of Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rana et al.13 report their interesting experience of 12 years of EPF treatment. The technology used was endotherapy

with placement of transpapillary NPD after failure of initial conservative management. In their trial, all 23 patients had persistent drain outputs >50 mL/day for 6 weeks, and 16 patients had partial pancreatic duct disruption at endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Bridging the duct was successfully

done in 15 patients. The EPF closed in 2–8 weeks with NPD placement in this subgroup, and there was no recurrence at a mean follow-up period of 38 months. However, success of EPF closure was selleck achieved in only two of six (33%) patients who had complete duct disruption. Procedure-related complications were observed in only two cases. Costamagna et al.4 have also reported results of endoscopic transpapillary NPD placement in 16 patients with postsurgical external pancreatic fistula. Technical success was achieved in 12 of 16 (75%), and fistula closure was achieved in 11 of these 12 patients after NPD placement. Cicek et al.12 reported a similar success rate in their series of 26 patients (EPF in 23 patients). Conclusively, the overall success rate of Org 27569 fistula closure in Rana et al.’s study was 17 of 23 (74%), which is comparable to other studies. The limitation of endotherapy is cases

with complete duct disruption, in which the success rate is very low and surgical management is required in most cases.12,14 It is our cautious conclusion that surgery should be considered as an initial therapy in non-bridging complete duct disruption. Recently, secretin-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance pancreatography was developed to visualize pancreatic duct disruption and help the clinician decide whether or not to perform endotherapy.12 The timing of endotherapy in EPF is still controversial. Since conservative therapy requires prolonged hospitalization, is of considerable cost, and usually results in poor quality of life, other modalities, including endotherapy, should be encouraged. However, the morbidity and mortality of therapeutic endoscopy in critically ill patients should also be considered, and spontaneous EPF closure is obvious in a significant proportion of patients. Boerman et al.15 reported a good result of early endoscopic intervention of EPF, although they did not specify the exact time interval after necrosectomy.

The sex and age class composition of groups, the majority includi

The sex and age class composition of groups, the majority including all

age classes, is consistent with daytime encounters including all behaviors (Elliser and Herzing 2012). Although this resident community Volasertib of Atlantic spotted dolphins forages during daylight on bottom dwelling and schooling fish on the shallow sandbanks (Herzing 1996, 2004), the adjacent deep waters represent an additional food resource. Atlantic spotted dolphins are rarely encountered diurnally in deep water, which suggests that they exploit the variety of prey in the DSL. Another species that utilizes the DSL are Hawaiian spinner dolphins, where dolphins rest in the shallow sandy bay during the day until sunset, when they head out to deep water to forage, returning to the bay in the early morning (Norris et al. 1994). Although tiger sharks have been observed in the deep waters of the Bahamas at night with Atlantic spotted dolphins, nocturnal feeding off the edge of the sandbank appears to be an activity of all age classes of Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas to some degree. It remains unclear if Atlantic

spotted dolphins in the Bahamas are primarily (1) nocturnal feeders, with occasional instances of opportunistic diurnal feeding; (2) diurnal feeders with episodic nocturnal foraging; or (3) opportunistic with specialization based on experience or prey species availability. In the past the analysis of nocturnal foraging habits of dolphins has been determined primarily from the examination of the stomach contents of dead animals (Perrin et al. 1973, Barros JNK inhibitors and Wells 1998). The unique habitat in the Bahamas makes this area a new location for observing diurnal and nocturnal foraging habits of small delphinids. We thank the Wild Dolphin Project and all crew and volunteers involved during the time frame of this study. This research was conducted under a permit from the Bahamian Department of

Fisheries. “
“Resident (fish eating) killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the North Pacific have been the subject of long-term studies in several geographical regions. The current study examines population parameters in the southern Alaska resident population from 1984 to 2010 and develops a population model. The southern Alaska resident population ranges from southeastern Alaska through the Kodiak archipelago medroxyprogesterone and contains over 700 individuals. We follow the life histories of 343 identifiable whales in 10 pods from two clans born before and during the study. Population parameters were comparable to those of the British Columbia northern resident population during the 1970s and 1980s, except that age of maturity was approximately one year earlier. The average annual rate of increase was slightly higher in Alaska (3.5%) than for the British Columbia northern residents (2.9%) and probably represents a population at r-max (maximum rate of growth).

In expert hands, these procedures are now being performed with a

In expert hands, these procedures are now being performed with a low frequency of complications and with low recurrence rates. Although current methods are

time-consuming, it seems likely that the procedure will become simpler and faster as platforms are developed that permit simultaneous retraction and cutting. Another potential area is the local treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms with agents administered via endoscopy, perhaps with guidance from EUS. Potential agents can be engineered viruses that either selectively kill malignant cells or sensitize malignant cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An alternative approach is the application of immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer where an allogeneic, mixed-lymphocyte culture (cytoimplant) is injected into the cancer to initiate a strong tumor-specific immune response. Both approaches have already been used with apparent benefit in preliminary studies.37,38 Despite the above, those who see endoscopic therapy as the future of gastrointestinal surgery should heed the lessons of endoscopic therapy

for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Between approximately 1990 and 2005, various endoscopic techniques were used to narrow the lower esophagus or ‘support’ the lower esophageal sphincter using injectible agents, scarring via radiofrequency energy or the placement of superficial sutures in the gastric cardia. These techniques have largely been abandoned although there are on-going studies designed to replicate

the principles that have been applied in open and laparoscopic fundoplication. For most endoscopy suites, the number of upper gastrointestinal procedures is either static or in decline while the number of colonoscopic procedures continues to increase. The former reflects at least some reduction in endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding while the latter reflects a focus on colorectal neoplasia, sometimes supported by local and national bowel cancer screening programs. While colonoscopy is likely to be central to surveillance for colorectal cancer for some years, alternative screening options could become available that might decrease Mirabegron the need for colonoscopic procedures. For example, fecal occult blood testing is widely used for community screening but only 1 in 20 positive subjects has cancer at colonoscopy. Conceivably, the detection of DNA mutations or specific cancer-associated proteins in blood or feces could be a more sensitive and specific EX 527 clinical trial indicator of high-risk neoplasms. Other investigations such as CT colonography and MRI colonography might also have an increased role in screening, particularly if sensitivity and specificity can be improved without the preceding use of laxatives.

HSCs are liver pericytes that reside in the space between parench

HSCs are liver pericytes that reside in the space between parenchymal cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver.[2] HSCs are rich in vitamin A and store nearly 80% of retinoids of the whole body in its lipid droplets in the cytoplasm.[3, 4] Interestingly, recent studies[5-15] suggest that HSCs participate in the liver immunity. In this paper, we review the recent development in HSC-mediated

immunity and the significance of these new observations. HCV represents one of the major causes of liver fibrosis. The rate of progression of liver fibrosis varies widely in the chronic HCV infection, and progresses to cirrhosis within 20 years in an estimated 20–30% of individuals with chronic HCV infection.[16] The role of HSCs in GSI-IX supplier HCV-mediated liver fibrosis has been well documented. HCV-infected hepatocytes release transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other profibrogenic factors that differentially modulate HSC expression of www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-770.html several key genes involved in liver fibrosis.[17] HCV infection-induced hepatocyte

apoptosis is a common feature in chronic HCV infection.[18, 19] Apoptosis results in the generation of apoptotic bodies (ABs), which are subsequently cleared by phagocytosis. Several studies showed that HSCs have the ability to engulf ABs through phagocytosis, which can trigger a profibrogenic response.[20, 21] It was reported that ABs derived from HCV-infected Huh7 cells exhibited a more pronounced effect on profibrotic genes expression in HSCs than HCV-negative ABs.[22] Besides the indirect effects of HCV on HSCs function through infected

hepatocytes, several studies[23-26] this website indicated that there is also a direct contact between HCV and HSCs. The potential interaction between HSCs and HCV is suggested by the observation that HSCs express high levels of CD81 protein,[23] a key entry coreceptor for HCV.[24] It has been demonstrated that the HCV E2 protein can directly bind to CD81 on HSC surface, inducing fibrogenic effects on HSCs.[25] In addition to HCV envelope protein, HCV core and nonstructural proteins have also been shown to affect HSC functions.[26] Recombinant HCV core and NS3 proteins could increase intracellular calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species production in activated HSCs.[26] HCV core protein could increase HSC proliferation, and NS3-NS5 protein preferentially induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in HSCs. The roles of HSCs in HCV infection-mediated liver fibrosis are summarized in Table 1. HSCs have recently been implicated to play a novel role in the liver immunity. It was reported that HSCs could induce vigorous natural killer T (NKT) cell responses in vitro and in vivo, and promote homeostatic proliferation of NKT cells.[13] In addition, HSCs could elicit antigen-specific T cells and inhibit bacterial infection in a Listeria monocytogenes infection model.

Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and thiopurine s-methyltransferase

Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and thiopurine s-methyltransferase levels in gastroenterology and rheumatology: a comparison of clinical practice in Australia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009;24(s2):222–223. L BESWICK,1 L SOH,2 A MCFARLANE,1 DR VAN LANGENBERG1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Background: Infliximab (IFX) infusion reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

(IBD) vary from minor urticaria to anaphylaxis. Although studies have previously observed infusion reactions in up to 10–50% of patients receiving infliximab infusions, anecdotally the prevalence appears far lower than this. To minimize reactions, standard infliximab infusions run over two hours with DNA-PK inhibitor two hours of post-infusion monitoring advised, yet many studies have shown more rapid infusion protocols to be safe and cost effective. Hence in a quality improvement initiative, we aimed to evaluate current practice of administering IFX infusions in patients with IBD and assess prevalence of IFX infusion reactions at a large volume, single IBD center, then evaluate predictive factors that are associated with an increased risk of an IFX infusion reaction. Methods: A retrospective audit of all patients with confirmed IBD who received IFX at Eastern Health between 1/1/2005- 1/1/2014 was conducted.

Data encompassing JNK inhibitor demographics, IBD clinical data, the number and time duration of IFX infusions plus the frequency, management and sequelae of infusion this website reactions were extracted from hospital records. Results: 2214 IFX infusions were administered to 169 patients throughout the nine-year period. The median number of infusions per patient was 10, with median age 38 (range 19–83) and 94 (56%) males; 126

(75%) patients had Crohn’s disease; 43 (25%) patients had ulcerative colitis. The median duration of IFX infusion was 2 hours 30 minutes (door-door at infusion unit) and 1 hour 25 minutes (start-finish infusion only) for their first documented infusion compared to 2 hours 15 minutes and 1 hour 15 minutes respectively for their most recently documented infusion. The adverse reaction rate per patient was 13.6%; 18 patients classified as having a mild reaction and 5 having a serious reaction (rate per patient 3.6%, per infusion 0.2%) according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. 17/18 (94%) with a mild reaction tolerated subsequent IFX infusions when rechallenged. According to multivariate analysis, predictive factors of an IFX infusion reaction included episodic or gap >3 months in IFX dosing (OR 8.7, 95% CI [1.8, 41.4], concurrent immunomodulator OR 9.4 [1.5, 57.4], smoker at time of reaction OR 3.8 [1.01, 13.9], duration of IBD when IFX started (per year, OR 1.11 [1.04, 1.2]) (each p < 0.05), with a non-significant trend for previous adverse drug reaction(s) OR 3.2 [0.8, 13.3] (p = 0.1).