Taken together, these findings suggest that

the 90% MeOH

Taken together, these findings suggest that

the 90% MeOH fraction of P morrowii extract and/or its constituents has the potential for use as a new bioresource of antioxidants.”
“Background: When multiple prognostic factors are adjusted for in the analysis of a randomised trial, it is unclear (1) whether it is necessary to account for each of the strata, formed by all combinations of the prognostic factors (stratified analysis), when randomisation has been balanced within each stratum (stratified randomisation), or whether adjusting for the main effects alone will suffice, and (2) BVD-523 chemical structure the best method of adjustment in terms of type I error rate and power, irrespective of the randomisation method.

Methods: We used simulation to (1) determine if a stratified analysis is necessary after stratified randomisation, and (2) to compare different methods of adjustment in terms of power and type I error rate. We considered the following methods of analysis: adjusting for covariates in a regression BMS-345541 datasheet model, adjusting for each stratum using either fixed or random effects, and Mantel-Haenszel or a stratified Cox model depending on outcome.

Results: Stratified analysis is required

after stratified randomisation to maintain correct type I error rates when (a) there are strong interactions between prognostic factors, and (b) there are approximately equal number of patients in each stratum. However, simulations based on real trial data found that type I error rates were unaffected by the method of analysis (stratified vs unstratified), indicating these conditions were not met in real datasets. Comparison of different analysis methods found that with

small sample sizes and a binary or time-to-event outcome, most analysis methods lead to either inflated type I www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html error rates or a reduction in power; the lone exception was a stratified analysis using random effects for strata, which gave nominal type I error rates and adequate power.

Conclusions: It is unlikely that a stratified analysis is necessary after stratified randomisation except in extreme scenarios. Therefore, the method of analysis (accounting for the strata, or adjusting only for the covariates) will not generally need to depend on the method of randomisation used. Most methods of analysis work well with large sample sizes, however treating strata as random effects should be the analysis method of choice with binary or time-to-event outcomes and a small sample size.”
“The present study was conducted to determine the protective ability of the ethanol extracts of Hypericum scabroides Robson & Poulter (HS) and Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra (HT) against the protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by Fenton system. The ability of HS and HT to prevent oxidative damage to bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by Fe(3+)/H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid was investigated.

The median follow-up was 17 6 months, with seven patients being f

The median follow-up was 17.6 months, with seven patients being followed at 1 year and three being followed at 2 years. Treatment tolerance was evaluated from results of clinical examination, follow-up CT, and CT performed immediately after completion of RF ablation.


No procedural deaths occurred. Procedural complications observed at CT during RF ablation were mild parenchymal hemorrhages (n = 5; 31%). All pneumothoraces (n = 6; 37%) resolved after chest tube placement. Postprocedural complications included one case of pulmonary infection and two cases of limited hemoptysis. Complete tumor ablation was obtained in all RF sessions but one (15 of 16; 95%). Overall survival rate was 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36%, 92%) at 2 years; cancer-specific Vorinostat inhibitor survival was 100% at 2 years. The tumor-free survival was 58.7% (95% CI: 32%, 81%) at 1 year and 19.6% (95% CI: 4%, 58%) at 2 years.

Conclusion: RF ablation appears to be a reasonable and safe option in patients with a single lung. (c) RSNA, 2011″
“The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic iron deficiency

on neuropsychological traits in infants. We established the nutritional iron status and assessed the neuropsychological characteristics of 58 Mexican 14- to 18-month-old infants. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development, preschool language scales and an environmental sound perception task designed expressly for the study, were used. The infants’ mothers were asked to fill out 2 questionnaires concerning their child’s sociodemographic selleck background. Six different neuropsychological domains were analyzed. Results showed that the chronic iron deficiency group did show significantly lower scores on language, environmental sound perception, and motor measures, when compared

with infants with normal nutritional iron status at 6 and 14 to 18 months. Our conclusion is that the development of language and motor GW4869 order skills and environmental sound perception appeared to be sensitive to the effects of chronic iron deficiency in infants.”
“The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.

“Benign lichenoid keratosis is a cutaneous entity that con

“Benign lichenoid keratosis is a cutaneous entity that consists of a nonpruritic papule or slightly indurated plaque that is histologically characterized by a band-like inflammatory infiltrate with interface involvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathologic features of benign lichenoid keratosis localized on the face. Fourteen benign lichenoid keratosis patients diagnosed clinically and histopathologically in our clinic during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012 were studied. Thirteen

female and 1 male patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.5 years. The color of most of the lesions was brown (10 cases, 71%). The cheek was the most commonly involved area (10 cases, 71%). All of the lesions were Staurosporine single. There were 9 (64%) flat lesion cases and 5 (36%) raised lesion cases. Most patients denied having any symptoms; 3 had mild pruritus. The histopathological findings indicated that all the cases exhibited lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate obscuring the dermal-epidermal junction and vacuolar alteration of basal cell layer. The lesions showed focal parakeratosis (79%), melanophages (79%), hyperkeratosis (71%), and necrotic keratinocytes (71%). Solar elastosis (50%) and acanthosis (43%) were also seen frequently. Diagnosis of benign lichenoid keratosis

should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and histopathological findings. In particular, benign lichenoid keratosis should be considered if a middle-aged

patient presents a solitary asymptomatic brown lesion on the face. We think benign lichenoid keratosis find more may be a specific disorder rather than the inflammatory stage of regressing solar lentigines, large cell acanthoma or reticulated seborrheic keratosis.”
“We investigated the variation in concentrations Selleckchem LOXO-101 and profiles of various classes of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in different feather types, muscle tissue and preen oil from 15 white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) carcasses from Greenland. The influence of moult patterns and potential external contamination onto the feather surface was examined, while the present study is also the first to investigate the use of body feathers for OHC monitoring. Concentrations of sum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feathers from white tailed eagles ranged from 2.3 ng/g in a primary wing feather to 4200 ng/g in body feathers. Using 300 mg of body feathers, almost 50 different OHCs could be quantified and median concentrations in body feathers were 10 fold higher than concentrations in tail feathers (rectrices) or primary wing feathers. Body feathers could be very useful for biomonitoring taking into account their easy sampling, short preparation time and high levels of OHCs. In addition, the effects of confounding variables such as feather size, moult and age are also minimised using body feathers.

This trade off can be derived analytically using the Cramer-Rao t

This trade off can be derived analytically using the Cramer-Rao type bounds, which imply the calculation and the inversion of the Fisher information matrix (FIM). The inverse of the FIM expresses the uncertainty associated to the tomogram, enabling the

comparison of system designs. However, computing, storing and inverting the FIM is not practical with 3-D imaging systems. In order to tackle the problem of the computational load in calculating the inverse of the FIM, a method based on the calculation https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MGCD0103(Mocetinostat).html of the local impulse response and the variance, in a single point, from a single row of the FIM, has been previously proposed for system design. However this approximation (circulant approximation) does not capture the global interdependence between the variables in shift-variant systems such as SPECT, and cannot account e. g., for data truncation or missing data. Our new formulation relies on subsampling the FIM. The FIM is calculated over a subset of voxels arranged in a grid that covers the whole volume. Every element of the FIM at the grid points is calculated exactly, accounting for the acquisition geometry and for the object. This new formulation reduces the computational complexity in estimating

the uncertainty, but nevertheless accounts for the global interdependence between the variables, enabling the exploration of design spaces hindered by the circulant approximation.

The graphics processing unit accelerated implementation selleck inhibitor of the algorithm reduces further the computation times, making the algorithm a good candidate for real-time optimization of adaptive imaging systems. This paper describes the subsampled FIM formulation and implementation details. The advantages and limitations of the new approximation are explored, in comparison with the circulant approximation, in the context of design optimization of a parallel-hole collimator SPECT system and of an adaptive imaging system (similar to the commercially available D-SPECT).”
“Objective. Determine if the multidimensional pain-related experience differs between cognitively intact and impaired older adults.

Design. Cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

Setting. selleck kinase inhibitor Community-dwelling older adults.

Outcome Measures. Pain reports were dichotomized from a 5-point scale into no/very mild vs moderate and greater. Cognition measured by the Modified Mini Mental State Exam (0-100) was dichotomized into cognitively intact (>77) and cognitively impaired (<= 77). Five self-rated Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) were dichotomized into no impairment vs any impairment. The Mental Health Inventory consists of five self-rated questions about psychological state and well-being, with scores ranging from 0 to 30; scores >11 indicate depression.

In this study the root-hairless mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare

In this study the root-hairless mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) brb (bald root barley) and the wildtype genotype (cv. Pallas) were compared with respect to their capacity to respond to Fe shortage in nutrient solution. Plants were grown with Fe(III)-EDTA at 0, 0.02 and 0.08 mM, in order to reproduce severe or moderate Fe deficiency, and adequate Fe nutritional status, respectively. Analysis was performed after 11 and 14 days considering leaf Fe content, phytosiderophores release and click here accumulation in root tips,

and (59)Fe uptake.

Biomass accumulation and chlorophyll content were not reduced in mutant plants as compared to wild-type ones; leaf Fe content was similar in both genotypes after 14 days of growth. Accumulation and release of phytosiderophores showed a similar trend

in both genotypes when subjected to Fe limitation. Furthermore, no significant difference between the two genotypes was observed when (59)Fe uptake was measured.

Results seem to support the idea that the presence of root hairs and their increased production in response to low-Fe availability, while causing major modifications of root geometry, did not necessarily lead neither to an effect on growth nor on Fe uptake and accumulation in barley plants. (C) 2010 Elsevier https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A circuit-fluid coupled model is proposed for describing the dynamics of the electron-hole plasma and the evolution of the electric field in the drift step recovery diodes (DSRDs). The

model takes account of the real doping profile of the p(+)-p-n(+) type silicon DSRD and the elementary processes such as the impact ionization, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination and Auger recombination. The current opening process of the DSRD is simulated with the proposed model and then the nanosecond opening-mechanism is investigated. The opening process is found to appear at the base region of the DSRD, due to the high density electron-hole plasma formed at the forward pumping period. According to the opening rate, the opening process can be divided into two stages: a slow stage near the p(+)-p boundary GANT61 and an abrupt one at p-n junction. Moreover, simulation results show that the p+-p-n+ type DSRD with a lower base tends to generate pulses with shorter rise time and higher peak voltage. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. (doi:10.1063/1.3531624)”
“In hypertensive humans, the CC genotype of the aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism (ASGP) CYP11B(2) (C-344T variant) is associated with increased aortic stiffness. Whether ASGP is also associated with altered central (carotid) wave reflections has never been investigated.

This series further sheds light on the diagnostic, histological,

This series further sheds light on the diagnostic, histological, prognostic, and therapeutic differences between congenital brain tumors and tumors of the

same pathology in older pediatric and adult populations.”
“Computerized click here tomography (CT) is a valuable tool for diagnosis and planning in conventional and surgical endodontic therapy. This case report describes the use of CT in the diagnosis of a periapical lesion undetected by periapical radiography in the mandibular molar area. The CT also showed a possible mesial root perforation associated with the lesion. Following CT, surgical planning, periradicular curettage, and sealing of the root perforation were performed. Eight years after surgery, cone beam CT revealed periapical bone repair. Computerized tomography can be an important resource for diagnosis and planning in conventional and surgical endodontic therapy, as well as for evaluation of post-treatment bone repair. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 629-633)”
“This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in

exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. selleck chemicals llc Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “”cybercycle;”" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) x time (pre-to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness

may maximize exercise effort.”
“We report a case carrying a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 3q22-q25. The clinical phenotype of this case included blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation, and global developmental delay. Contiguous heterozygous deletion of FOXL2, ATR, ZIC1, and see more ZIC4 was postulated as the causative mechanism of the clinical phenotype. The association of blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome with developmental delay or mental retardation may be an indication for the use of brain imaging and chromosomal analysis capable of detecting chromosomal rearrangements encompassing several candidate genes.”
“Objective. The antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection (PAD) using toluidine blue and an LED lamp was tested on endodontic pathogens in planktonic suspension and after inoculation into extracted teeth. Irradiation time was limited to 30 seconds.

Study design. The effect of PAD on planktonic suspensions of Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus intermedius was analyzed using Poisson regression.

(C) 2011 American

(C) 2011 American MK-1775 in vivo Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3553390]“

copolymer (EOC) was crosslinked by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) at various temperatures (150-200 degrees C). Six concentrations of DCP in range 0.2-0.7 wt % were investigated. cross-linking was studied by rubber process analyzer (RPA) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From RPA data analysis real part modulus s`, tan delta, and reaction rate were investigated as a function of peroxide content and temperature. The highest s`(max) and the lowest tan d were found for 0.7% of DCP at 150 degrees C. Chain scission was analyzed by slope analysis of conversion ratio, X in times after reaching the maximum. Less susceptible to chain scission are temperatures in range 150-170 degrees C and peroxide levels 0.2-0.5%. Heat of reaction was analyzed by DSC at various heating rates (5-40 degrees C min(-1)). It was found to be exothermic. By projection to zero heating rate,

the reaction was found to start at 128 degrees C with the maximum at 168 degrees C. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 521-530, 2011″
“Background: SRT2104 Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) causes outbreaks of life-threatening diseases throughout the world. The genesis of these severe diseases is unknown.

Methods: During an outbreak of HEV71 infection, we investigated risk factors for critical illness. We developed a modified pediatric index of mortality (mPIM) incorporating

selleck heart rate, temperature, white blood cell count, respiratory rate, chest infiltrates, skin color, reflexes, responsiveness, and mobility. We calculated the mPIM for 103 patients (22 deaths) using complete scoring criteria in the medical record. In a case-control study, we compared cases (mPIM >= 10 or death) with controls (mPIM = 0-9) by drugs received within 96 hours after onset of fever, initial temperature, age, and nutritional anthropometry.

Results: About 66% (68/103) of the patients with an mPIM score (28 cases and 40 controls) had data on initial exposures. About 50% of the 28 cases and 18% of the 40 controls received an injection to treat fever during the first 96 hours after onset (Odds ratio [OR] = 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-28). Injections containing exclusively glucocorticoids (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.2-21) or pyrazolones (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 0.91-19, P = 0.047) were risk factors for severe HEV71 infection. About 25% of cases and 5% of controls received both drugs parenterally while 7% of cases and 30% of controls received neither (OR = 21, 95% CI: 1.8-305). Conversely, cases and controls had identical average initial temperature, and did not differ significantly by age, sex, nutritional measurements, use of other drugs, or timeliness of medical care received.

Conclusion: Fever treatment with glucocorticoids and/or pyrazolones is a risk factor for life-threatening HEV71 infection.

Our algorithm provides an efficient solution to a well-defined pr

Our algorithm provides an efficient solution to a well-defined problem of jointly clustering networks, using techniques that permit certain theoretical guarantees on the quality of the detected clustering relative to the optimal clustering. These

guarantees coupled with an effective scaling heuristic and the flexibility to handle multiple heterogeneous networks make our method JointCluster an advance over earlier approaches. Simulation results showed JointCluster to be more AZD9291 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor robust than alternate methods in recovering clusters implanted in networks with high false positive rates. In systematic evaluation of JointCluster and some earlier approaches for combined analysis of the yeast physical network and two gene expression datasets under glucose and ethanol growth conditions,

JointCluster discovers clusters that are more consistently enriched for various reference classes capturing see more different aspects of yeast biology or yield better coverage of the analysed genes. These robust clusters, which are supported across multiple genomic datasets and diverse reference classes, agree with known biology of yeast under these growth conditions, elucidate the genetic control of coordinated transcription, and enable functional predictions for a number of uncharacterized genes.”
“We report on the defect properties of nominally undoped and phosphorus-doped ZnO microwires grown by carbothermal vapor phase transport. Cathodoluminescence measurements show very narrow (approximate to 300 mu eV), donorlike transitions in the UV spectral range. A recombination-line at 3.356 eV, previously assigned to phosphorus acceptors, is observed in our undoped ZnO.

Thus the G418 price correlation of this recombination process and possible acceptor doping can be excluded. Hall effect measurements confirmed these findings and revealed n-type conductivity in both ZnO and high quality ZnO:P microwires. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3530610]“
“The efficacy of current hepatitis C therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is largely dependent on HCV genotype. The annual prevalence of HCV genotypes/subtypes and their influence on HCV clearance with antiviral treatment were examined in a dynamic cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients followed up in Madrid since 2000. Patients entered the cohort at first visit and left the cohort when HCV clearance was achieved with HCV therapy or when follow-up was interrupted for any reason, including death. A total of 672 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients constituted the cohort. The mean follow-up time was 5.5 years, corresponding to 4108 patient-years. Mean age at entry was 37 years, and 73% were men and 86% were intravenous drug users. Overall distribution of HCV genotypes was as follows: 57.1% HCV-1 (1a: 29.2%, 1b: 20.4%, unknown: 7.6%), 1.3% HCV-2, 25.4% HCV-3 and 15.9% HCV-4. A total of 274 (40.

“Since the first introduction of hormonal contraception, f

“Since the first introduction of hormonal contraception, family planning and procreation have become increasingly medicalised. The rapid spread of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is part of this natural development of modern society. Z IETD FMK However, in Switzerland it has caused severe controversy and its use has been framed by a restrictive legislation since 2001. Despite this, the yearly number of reported treatments with in-vitro fertilisation (IVF), with intracytoplasmic sperm

injection (ICSI) and with transfer of frozen/thawed oocytes in the pronucleate stage has risen to more than 10,000 in 2011. As over time the protocols for ovarian stimulation have reached higher levels of efficacy and as the composition of the culture media used for embryo development in the laboratory has become more elaborate, the implantation rate of the transferred embryos has steadily improved leading to higher pregnancy rates, but also resulting in a higher risk of multiple delivery. Deliveries Sotrastaurin TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor of

multiples, including those with twins, often occur prematurely causing significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improved assessment of the developmental potential of embryos together with better freezing protocols have lead to the selection and transfer of one single embryo per treatment cycle in an increasing number of countries but not in Switzerland. This strategy has been shown to be very effective in preventing multiple deliveries without compromising the overall pregnancy rates. In addition, well accepted treatment modalities in assisted reproduction, such as embryo cryopreservation, oocyte donation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis have not been implemented in Switzerland due to the current restrictive legislation. The

still present ban on cryopreservation of embryos in Switzerland now leads to a higher incidence of complications and neonatal death than necessary in the presence of an adapted legal environment. There is an urgent need for a public debate about the future role of modern reproductive medicine in Swiss society. This discussion LY2090314 nmr should focus not only on the risks of ART but also on its opportunities.”
“Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) pose a risk to human food safety and health and may cause substantial economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In Nghe An Province, Vietnam, low prevalence of FZT for fish farmers but high prevalence for fish indicate that reservoir hosts other than humans may play a role in sustaining transmission. To determine whether domestic animals may be reservoir hosts, we assessed prevalence and species composition of FZT infections in dogs, cats, and pigs in a fish-farming community in Vietnam. Feces from 35 cats, 80 dogs, and 114 pigs contained small trematode eggs at 48.6%, 35.0%, and 14.

The highest strain sensitivity was obtained for CoGa0 2Fe1 8O4 at

The highest strain sensitivity was obtained for CoGa0.2Fe1.8O4 at 250 K. Results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring magnetomechanical properties of the material to suit intended applications under varying temperature

conditions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3540662]“
“We reviewed the medical history, EEG recordings, and developmental milestones of 19 children with speech and language dysfunction and focal epileptiform activity. Speech, language, and neuropsychological assessments and EEG recordings were performed at follow-up, and prognostic indicators Selleckchem Omipalisib were analyzed. Three patterns of language development were observed: late start and slow development, late start and deterioration/regression, and normal start and later regression/deterioration. No differences in test

results among these groups were seen, indicating a spectrum of related conditions including Landau-Kleffner syndrome and epileptic language disorder. More than half of the participants had speech and language dysfunction at follow-up. IQ levels, working memory, and processing speed were also affected. Dysfunction of auditory perception in noise was found in more than PRIMA-1MET mw half of the participants, and dysfunction of auditory attention in all. Dysfunction of communication, oral motor ability, and stuttering were noted in a few. Family history of seizures and abundant epileptiform activity indicated a worse prognosis. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In a previous work, we examined subgap states in highly doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) films by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) and found they had subgap electronic states above the valence band maximum (VBM) with the densities > 5 x 10(20) cm(-3) and just below the Fermi level with the densities > 5 x 10(19) cm(-3) [K.

Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga, K. Yang, K. Kobayashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202117 (2008)]; EPZ-6438 mouse however, their electron densities (N-e > 3 x 10(19) cm(-3)) are rather high and not compatible with rational properties required for active channel layers in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this work, we report the effects of N-e and thermal annealing on the subgap states in order to provide the data useful for actual TFTs. It was found that the low-N-e a-IGZO films had extra subgap states above VBM similar to the previous report, but their densities were as small as similar to 2.0 x 10(20) cm(-3) for the highly resistive, wet-annealed a-IGZO films. Angle-dependent HX-PES revealed that the subgap states above VBM concentrate in the surface region. The O 1s peak indicated that the wet annealing suppressed the generation of subgap states by terminating these states with -OH bonds. The subgap states below E-F were observed commonly in all the samples including ZnO, crystalline (c-) IGZO and a-IGZO.