Conidiophores (main axes to terminal branches) mostly

Conidiophores (main axes to terminal branches) mostly this website 4–6 μm wide, terminally 2–3 μm. Phialides parallel, less commonly divergent, in whorls of 2–6(–8), rarely solitary; whorls solitary when terminal, otherwise often paired; supporting cells (metulae)

(6–)7–11(–14) μm long, (2.0–)3.0–4.0(–4.5) μm wide at the apex, 2.2–3.0(–3.5) μm wide at the lower end (n = 20), often thickened. Phialides (6–)7–12(–19) × (2.3–)2.8–3.5(–4.5) μm, l/w (1.8–)2.3–4.0(–5.8), (1.5–)2.0–2.8(–3.5) μm wide at the base (n = 125), lageniform, straight in the middle of the whorl, otherwise distinctly curved, inaequilateral, sometimes sigmoid, often attenuated at the base and apex, widest mostly in or below the middle; neck variable, often long and thin, abruptly attenuated and nearly cylindrical. Conidia formed in mostly dry minute Danusertib in vitro heads <20 μm diam. Conidia (3.2–)3.8–5.3(–7.0) × (2.3–)2.5–3.0(–3.7) μm, l/w (1.3–)1.4–2.0(–2.5) (n = 148), hyaline, ellipsoidal to oblong, smooth, eguttulate or finely multiguttulate; scar indistinct or prominent. At 6–10°C colony irregular, hyaline, loose; aerial hyphae abundant, arising several mm, arachnoid to nearly cottony. Fertile stromata characteristically formed in culture on OA (W. Gams, pers. comm.). Habitat: on dead

twigs of Rhododendron ferrugineum and R. hirsutum, also reported from stems of Vaccinium myrtillus (Müller et al. 1972). Distribution: Central Europe (alpine regions of Austria, Germany and Switzerland). Holotype: Switzerland, Kanton S63845 cost Wallis, Brig, Aletschreservat, alter Belalpweg, on wood of Rhododendron ferrugineum, 12 Sep. 1968, E. Müller & B. Aebi (K(M) 155404, ex herb. Sheffield Univ. 3031). Holotype of Trichoderma psychrophilum isolated from WU 29420 and deposited as a dry culture with H. psychrophila WU 29420 as WU 29420a. Other specimens examined: Austria, Tirol, Imst, Silz, between Haggen and Kühtai, close to the Zirmbachalm, MTB 8732/3, 47°13′15″ N, 11°03′13″ E, elev. 1920 m, on a thin corticated twig of Rhododendron ferrugineum 9 mm thick, on bark, 3 Sep. 2003, W. Jaklitsch, W.J. 2366 (WU 29420,

culture C.P.K. 1602). Same area, 47°13′14″ N, 11°03′17″ E, elev. 1940 m, on thin corticated twigs of Rhododendron ferrugineum 2–6 cm thick, on bark, 28 Aug. 2004, W. Jaklitsch & H. Voglmayr, W.J. 2624 (WU 29421, culture Chloroambucil CBS 119129 = C.P.K. 1990). Germany, Bavaria, Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Garmisch, Wettersteingebirge, Garmisch-Partnachklamm, Reintal, Kreuzeck MTB 8532/14, elev. 1700 m, on corticated twigs of Rhododendron hirsutum, 30 July 2006, P. Karasch, W.J. 2926 (WU 29422, culture C.P.K. 2435). Switzerland, Kanton Wallis, Brig, Aletschreservat, alter Belalpweg, on wood of Rhododendron ferrugineum, Riederfurka, 9 Sep. 1970, E. Müller (culture CBS 343.71; only culture examined). Notes: This species is unequivocally characterised by bright yellow to orange stromata on Rhododendron spp. in the Alps. In specimens, stromata of H.

coli strain 536 (Tables 1+2) Primers 10f/r served as positive co

coli strain 536 (Tables 1+2). Primers 10f/r served as positive control for general detection of plasmid and chromosomally inherited α-hly determinants. Primers and PCR conditions are listed in Table 2. PCR reactions were performed as described previously [29]. Transcriptional Emricasan price Analysis of α-hlyA genes by qRT-PCR Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed with the Applied Biosystems

7500 real time PCR system (Applied Biosystems) with cDNA samples from bacteria (see above). Transcription rates of the α-hlyA gene were compared to those of the icdA housekeeping gene. Primers hlyA-f 5′ ACCTTGTCAGGACGGCAGAT 3′ and hlyA-r 5′ CCGTGCCATTCTTTTCATCA 3′ and the VIC labeled TaqMan MGB probe 5′ ACTGGGAATTGAAGTCC 3′ were used for amplification of the α-hlyA selleck inhibitor gene. The primers and the gene probe for detection of the icdA gene were described recently [29]. Real time PCR Gemcitabine solubility dmso amplification were performed in an “”icdA & α-hlyA”" multiplex assay and were analyzed with the 7500 system SDS software version 1.4 as described [29]. GenBank accession numbers The following nucleotide sequences derived from the α-hemolysin producing strains and α-hly plasmids from Table 1 were submitted to GenBank: strain 374 (pHly152) [GenBank FN678785]; 84-2195 (pEO9) [GenBank FM210248, FN673699, FN678787]; 84-3208 (pEO11) [GenBank FM210249, FN678787, FN673696]; CB853 (pEO853) [GenBank FM210347, FN678782, FN673701]; 84-R (pEO13)

[GenBank FM210348,

FN678786, FN673698]; 84-2573 (pEO12) [FM210349, FN678784, FN673703]; 84-2 S (pEO14) [GenBank FM210350, FN673697]; CB860 (pEO860) [GenBank FM210351, FN678780, FN673700]; CB855 (pEO855) [GenBank FN678788]; CB857 Methisazone (pEO857) [GenBank (FN678781, FN673702] and strain KK6-16 [FM210352, FN673704]. Acknowledgements Y. Burgos was partially supported from Brazil by “”Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)”", process of number 2006//53805-2. The authors are grateful to Eckhard Strauch (BfR, Berlin) for valuable discussions and suggestions and to Karin Pries for technical assistance. References 1. Welch RA: Pore-forming cytolysins of gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol 1991, 5:521–528.PubMedCrossRef 2. Menestrina G, Moser C, Pellet S, Welch R: Pore-formation by Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) and other members of the RTX toxins family. Toxicology 1994, 87:249–267.PubMedCrossRef 3. Stanley P, Koronakis V, Hughes C: Acylation of Escherichia coli hemolysin: a unique protein lipidation mechanism underlying toxin function. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998, 62:309–333.PubMed 4. Schmidt H, Kernbach C, Karch H: Analysis of the EHEC hly operon and its location in the physical map of the large plasmid of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:h7. Microbiology 1996,142(Pt 4):907–914.PubMedCrossRef 5. Holland IB, Schmitt L, Young J: Type 1 protein secretion in bacteria, the ABC-transporter dependent pathway (review).

Data are means and SD from three independent cultures Figure 4 G

Data are means and SD from three independent cultures. Figure 4 Growth of the wild type (closed symbols) and Etra7-1 (open symbols) strains with pyruvate and the indicated electron acceptor. (Panel A) DMSO consumption – squares (Panel B), fumarate consumption – diamonds (Panel C) and nitrate comsumption – triangles (Panel D). Data are means and SD from three independent cultures. Table 1 Comparison of reduction rates of several electron acceptors with pyruvate as electron donor by S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type strain and Wortmannin purchase etrA knockout strain EtrA7-1. Electron acceptor Wild type (μM min-1) ETRA7-1 (μM min-1) Nitrate 1.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ±

0.01 Fumarate 6.4 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.2 DMSO 0.8 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.1 Data are means ± the standard deviation from three independent cultures. Figure 5 Nitrate reduction in resting cell assays with the wild type (closed symbols) and the ETRA7-1 (open symbols) mutant strains. Nitrate – triangles, nitrite – squares and ammonium – circles. Nitrate measurements in killed controls did not change, while nitrite and ammonium were not detected (data not shown). Effects see more of etrA deletion on transcription The global transcriptome profile

of mutant strain EtrA7-1 grown anaerobically with nitrate as the sole electron acceptor was compared to that of the wild type under the same growth conditions. A complete list of all the genes differentially expressed two-fold or higher is provided as supplemental information (Additional file 1). Out of 612 differentially transcribed genes in the EtrA7-1 mutant relative to the wild type, 289 were up-regulated and 323 were down-regulated.

The differentially transcribed genes were classified in 19 functional “”TIGR Role”" categories (Additional file 2) based on the MR-1 genome annotation (GenBank accession number AE014299) [22]. Genes with unknown functions represented the largest category of up-regulated (14.8%) and the second most common category of down-regulated genes (17.3%). Genes find more associated with energy metabolism were the largest category (17.6%) of down-regulated genes (Additional file 2). Among the up-regulated genes, the “”Protein synthesis”" category ranked second GNAT2 (12.5%) and the “”Other categories”" ranked third (11.4%). This latter category included phage-, transposase- and plasmid-related genes. The “”Energy metabolism”" category represented 9.7%, ranking fourth. Identification of putative EtrA binding sites The promoters of the differentially expressed genes were examined for putative EtrA binding sites in order to identify those genes that were likely directly regulated by EtrA from the many genes whose expression changes were most likely due to secondary effects. For example, the up-regulation of phage-related genes is likely a response to stress, and not a direct result of the etrA deletion. Putative EtrA binding sites were identified for those genes that showed at least 2.

PubMedCrossRef 64 Stojiljkovic I, Baumler AJ, Hantke K: Fur regu

PubMedCrossRef 64. Stojiljkovic I, Baumler AJ, Hantke K: Fur regulon in gram-negative bacteria. Identification and characterization of new iron-regulated Escherichia coli genes by a fur titration assay. J Mol Biol 1994,236(2):531–545.PubMedCrossRef 65. Domenico P, Schwartz S, Cunha BA: Reduction of capsular polysaccharide production in Klebsiella Temozolomide ic50 pneumoniae by

sodium salicylate. Infect Immun 1989,57(12):3778–3782.PubMed 66. Schwyn B, Neilands JB: Vadimezan mw Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem 1987,160(1):47–56.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SHH, CKW, HLP, and CTL made substantial contributions to design and conduct the experiments. YMH performed qRT-PCR and growth experiments. SHH and CKW performed the bioinformatics analyses and interpretation of data. CCW, YTC, and HLP contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript. CTL coordinated the study and performed manuscript editing. All authors have read and approved this work.”
“Background Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterial species that infects mammals and causes plague. Plague is a lethal disease known for Caspase Inhibitor VI clinical trial its important role in history, mainly as the cause of the Black Death [1–3]. Due to the emergence of antibiotics [4], plague no longer poses the same threat to public health as it did in the past. However, the Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II disease is

still present in almost every continent [5] causing fatalities that, during the last two decades, have fluctuated between several hundred to several

thousand deaths per year [6]. Plague is maintained in sylvatic animal reservoirs, and human populations that are in close contact with these reservoirs are at high risk [7]. Chemotherapy is efficacious only if administered early after infection and untreated individuals succumb to plague in less than a week. Furthermore, public health concerns have been raised because of reports of drug resistant strains in endemic foci [8]. The disease manifests after inhalation of bacteria suspended in aerosols (pneumonic plague) or through contact with broken skin (bubonic and septicemic plague) [9, 10]. While pneumonic plague is the most virulent form of the disease, bubonic plague is the most prevalent perhaps due to its dynamics of transmission, for which a flea vector is essential [11]. Little is known about how Y. pestis disseminates within the host after infection. It is known, however, that at some point after infection, Y. pestis expresses a set of genes that impair host immune responses [12–14]. These factors are thought to be essential for bacterial dissemination. Dissemination during bubonic plague traditionally has been studied through experiments where different organs from infected mice are harvested at various time points post inoculation. Harvested organs are then homogenized and plated to obtain bacterial burden.

Species N Normalized curves Normalized curves + matching of deriv

Species N Normalized curves Normalized curves + matching of derivative peaks Visual matching of derivative plots Matching of RAPD fingerprints Candida albicans 44 63.6 72.7 100 100 Candida glabrata 41 58.5 82.9 97.6 97.6 Candida krusei 39 64.1 82.1 97.4 100 Candida tropicalis 40 100.0 97.5 100 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 39 89.7

92.3 100 100 Candida parapsilosis 38 73.7 78.9 100 100 Candida lusitaniae 41 97.6 97.6 100 100 Candida guilliermondii 19 94.7 94.7 94.7 94.7 Candida pelliculosa 17 88.2 82.4 82.4-88.2 100 Candida metapsilosis 4 75.0 100.0 100 100 All species KPT-8602 molecular weight studied 322 79.5 86.7 98.1-98.4 99.4 Normalized curves column stays for accurate identification rate achieved when identification was based on automated determination of the numerically closest match of the examined curve with known strain. Normalized curve + matching of derivative peaks column stays for the same amended by checking for decisive peaks in derivative plot. Visual matching of derivative plots column stays for accurate identification rate achieved when identification Silmitasertib concentration was based on simple visual comparison of examined derivative plot with plots of known strains. Accurate identification rate achieved upon evaluation and

matching of RAPD fingerprints is shown for reference in the last column. See Results and discussion for details. Since the peaks observed in a first derivative plot may in some cases represent the overall characteristic shape of a melting curve better, we also tested performance of matching peaks positions for identification purposes as the second possible approach. However, identification of individual melting peaks in a derivative plot and comparison of these results to those characteristic for each species cannot be automated as easily. Therefore, we first evaluated the presence of individual peaks in each species and each genotype. To reduce the HKI-272 order amount of processed data and to identify typical positions of peaks in derivative curves, average first derivative curves were Carteolol HCl first calculated for each species/genotype based on individual derivation

values of each strain of the respective species/genotype. Average curves are summarized in additional file 3: Average derivative curves. To establish the relevance of each averaged peak for species/genotype identification, these were subsequently classified into three categories: (i) decisive which occurred in all strains of the respective species/genotype, (ii) characteristic which occurred in 75-99% of strains of the respective species/genotype, and (iii) possible which occurred in less than 75% of strains. Presence of peaks in individual species/genotypes as described above is summarized in Table 3. Unfortunately, when we tested the reading of peaks positioning alone for yeast identification, unequivocal match was impossible in many cases (data not shown). Table 3 Average melting temperatures of peaks in first derivative plots obtained in individual species/genotypes.

As an example, OxyGene, an anchor-based database of the ROS-RNS (

As an example, OxyGene, an anchor-based database of the ROS-RNS (Reactive Oxygen-Nitrogen species) detoxification subsystems for 664 complete bacterial and archaeal genomes, includes 37 detoxicifation enzyme subclasses [102]. Analysis of CoBaltDB subcellular localization information JNK inhibitor suggested the existence Anti-infection inhibitor of additional subclasses. For example, 1-cystein peroxiredoxin,

PRX_BCPs (bacterioferritin comigratory protein homologs), can be sub-divided into two new subclasses by distinguishing the secreted from the non-secreted forms (Figure 9a). Differences in the location between orthologous proteins are suggestive of functional diversity, and this is important for predictions of phenotype from the genotype. Figure 9 Using CoBalt for the analysis of orthologous and paralogous proteins. A: Phylogenetic tree of 1-cystein peroxiredoxin PRX_BCP proteins and heat map of scores in each box for each PRX_BCP protein. B: OxyGene and CoBalt predictions for SOD in Agrobacterium tumefacins str. C58 and Sinorhizobium meliloti

1021. CoBaltDB is a very useful tool for the comparison of paralogous proteins. For example, quantitative and qualitative analysis of superoxide anion detoxification subsystems using the OxyGene platform identified three iron-manganese Superoxide dismutase (SOD_FMN) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens but only one SOD_FMN and one Selleckchem Omipalisib copper-zinc SOD (SOD_CUZ) in Sinorhizobium meliloti. The number of paralogs and the class of orthologs thus differ between these two closely related genus. However, adding the subcellular localization dimension reveals that both species have machinery to detoxify superoxide anions in both the periplasm and cytoplasm: both one of the three SOD_FMN of A. tumefaciens and the SOD_CUZ of S. meliloti are secreted (Figure 9b). CoBaltDB thus helps explain the difference suggested by OxyGene

with respect to the ability of the two species to detoxify superoxide. Discussion CobaltDB allows biologists to improve their prediction of the subcellular localization of a protein by letting them compare the results of tools based on different methods and bringing complementary information. Etofibrate To facilitate the correct interpretation of the results, biologists have to keep in mind the limitations of the tools especially regarding the methodological strategies employed and the training sets used [93]. For example, most specialized tools tend to detect the presence of N-terminal signal peptides and predict cleavage sites. However the absence of an N-terminal signal peptide does not systematically indicate that the protein is not secreted. Some proteins that are translocated via the Sec system might not necessarily exhibit an N-terminal signal peptide, such as the SodA protein of M. tuberculosis, which is dependent on SecA2 for secretion and lacks a classical signal sequence for protein export [103].

Fig  13 Transition in the transport sector D in c on the right d

Fig. 13 Transition in the transport sector. D in c on the right denotes direct emission;

D&I denotes the sum of selleck chemicals llc direct emission and indirect emission Buildings In the reference scenario, energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings increases by about 60 % by 2050 relative to 2005 (Fig. 14). The energy mix changes considerably over time in the reference scenario, with a marked decrease of biomass and marked NVP-LDE225 order increase of electricity. Biomass accounts for about 30 % of total energy use in buildings in 2005, most of which is traditional biomass use in the residential sector. Traditional biomass use declines over time in the reference scenario: by 2050, it selleck inhibitor accounts for only 7 % of total energy consumption. In contrast to biomass, the consumption of modern forms of energy such as LPG, city gas, and electricity increases.

The increase in electricity consumption is the most conspicuous: from 2005 to 2050, the share of electricity in total energy consumption rises from 26 to 47 %. The increased energy consumption, in combination with the fuel mix change, pushes up CO2 emissions substantially in the reference scenario. If indirect emission is included, CO2 emissions in 2050 increase by 88 % relative to 2005. Fig. 14 Transition in the buildings sector. D in c on the right denotes direct emission; D&I denotes the sum of direct emission and indirect emission Energy consumption

in the s600 scenario shows no significant divergence from that in the reference scenario, but the drastic improvement in the CO2 emission factor of electricity in the s600 scenario brings about a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions (a 75 % reduction relative to 2005) when indirect emissions are included. Technologies for achieving 50 % reduction The “Energy system transitions” section described energy system changes in a scenario where the targeted 50 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 is achieved. This section gives a more detailed assessment of the respective contributions of technologies to the GHG reductions in 2020 and 2050. In the s600 scenario, GHG emissions must be reduced by 12 GtCO2-eq and 51 GtCO2-eq in 2020 and 2050, respectively, relative to the reference scenario. Figure 15 shows the contributions 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl of various technologies to GHG reduction in 2020 and 2050. Fig. 15 Contributions of technologies to GHG emission reduction in 2020 and 2050 in the s600 scenario In 2020, the power generation sector contributes the most to GHG emission reduction, accounting for 45 % of the total reduction achieved. The renewable energies, namely, solar, wind, and biomass, play a big role, together accounting for 31 % of the total GHG emission reduction. The remaining reduction in the power sector mainly comes from fuel switching and efficiency improvement in thermal power generation.

Our results

Our results Fosbretabulin suggest that HA117 is a strong MDR gene and that its MDR index is similar to that of MDR1 for P-gp substrate drugs and much higher than that of MDR1 for P-gp non-substrate drugs. In addition, using the breast cancer cell line, we show that the MDR mechanism of HA117 may not be similar to that of MDR1. As such, further studies need to be conducted to determine the mechanism of

HA117 to promote MDR. Materials and methods Cell culture The HEK 293 cell line was a generous gift from professor Tong-Chuan He (Selleckchem CP-690550 laboratory of Molecular Oncology, University of Chicago, USA). The breast cancer cell line 4T1 was bought (ATCC, USA) and preserved in our laboratory. The cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 (DMEM/F12) (Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Gibco, USA) and RPMI-1640 medium

(Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% FBS (Gibco, USA), respectively at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. The cells were passaged approximately once every 3 days. Preparation of high titer adenovirus vector supernatant Recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) and HA117 (Ad-GFP-HA117), GFP and MDR1 (Ad-GFP-MDR1) or only GFP (Ad-GFP) were previously constructed in our laboratory [10]. HEK 293 cells were transducted with Ad-GFP-HA117, Ad-GFP-MDR1 or Ad-GFP viral supernatant at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) CP673451 of 2-5. When all the cells exhibited a round morphology and approximately 80% of them were detached from the culture flask (usually 4 to 5 d post-transduction), the cells were harvested and combined. The cells were then frozen using a dry ice/methanol bath, immediately thawed in a 37°C water bath, and vortexed. A total of 4 freeze/thaw/vortex cycles were performed. After expanding for 3 cycles and purifying using density gradient centrifugation, the high titer recombinant

adenoviruses Ad-GFP-HA117, Ad-GFP-MDR1 selleck chemicals llc and Ad-GFP were harvested, filtered in a aseptic conditions through a 0.45-μm filter and stored at -80°C [11]. Transduction of 4T1 cells with adenoviral vector supernatant Logarithmic phase 4T1 cells were divided into 4 groups. Cells in group 1 were transducted with Ad-GFP-HA117 and cells in group 2 were transducted with Ad-GFP-MDR1 and served as the experimental groups. the stable transductants of these cells in the two groups are referred to as 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1. A third group of cells was transducted with empty Ad-GFP and served as a control group. the stable transductants of these cells are referred to as 4T1/GFP. Untransducted cells served as a blank control and are referred to as 4T1. The cells were plated on 96-well plates at a density of 2.0 × 105 cells/well and incubated for 16 h.

The aim of the study was to examine:

(a) if and how the g

The aim of the study was to examine:

(a) if and how the geographic factors examined influence the endemic vascular species richness and (b) whether the relationship between total vascular species richness and FG-4592 in vivo environmental factors reflects accurately the relationship between these environmental factors and endemic species this website richness. This finding may allow us to tap into the existing knowledge regarding environmental drivers of species diversity. For example, a common phenomenon concerning species richness is the small island effect. This predicts that as island area decreases, its effect on species diversity becomes insignificant and the species–area relationship disappears. In the Aegean, however, Panitsa et al. (2006) demonstrated that even for very small islets, the small island effect is not apparent. Can we therefore extrapolate from this finding selleck chemicals and argue that the small island effect also does not hold for endemic species richness in the Aegean? Methods Data set The dataset used in this study consists of

qualitative floristic data concerning 201 islands and islets throughout the Aegean. The islands and islets vary in size from 0.0004 to 8729 km² and in elevation from 2 to 2456 m asl. The islands belong to five floristic regions (Strid 1996), with 97 in the East Aegean (EAe), 51 in the South Aegean (Kriti and Karpathos, KK), 29 in the Central Aegean

(Kiklades, Kik), 20 in the West Aegean (WAe) and 4 in the North Aegean (NAe) (Fig. 1). The islands were assigned to island groups (Fig. 1) with each group consisting of neighbouring islands, e.g. a main island and its offshore islets. Fig. 1 Map of the Aegean archipelagos where the major islands are indicated, and the five floristic regions delineated. These regions are East Aegean (EAe), South Aegean (Kriti and Karpathos, KK), Central Aegean (Kiklades, Kik), West Aegean (WAe) and North Aegean (NAe) Data concerning the total floras were obtained from Molecular motor the literature: Bazos (2005), Bergmeier and Dimopoulos (2001), Bergmeier (2002), Bergmeier et al. (2001), Brofas et al. (2001), Burton (1991), Carlström (1987), Christodoulakis (1986, 1996, 2000), Greuter et al. (1983), Höner (1991), Kamari et al. (1988), Panitsa and Tzanoudakis (1998, 2001), Panitsa et al. (1994, 2003, 2004, 2006), Raus (1989, 1996a, b), Snogerup and Snogerup (1987, 1993), Snogerup et al. (2001), Strid and Tan (1998), Trigas and Iatrou (2006), Tzanoudakis et al. (2006). Data concerning the numbers of endemic species were obtained from the floristic-phytogeographical database “Chloris” created by the University of Athens (Georghiou and Delipetrou 2008).

CrossRef 38 Yang DP, Cui DX: Advances and prospects of gold nano

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Eng 2012,4(1):6–11. 42. Pan BF, Cui DX, Ozkan CG, Xu P, Huang T, Li Q, Chen H, Liu FT, Gao F, He R: DNA-templated ordered array of gold nanorods in one and two dimensions. J Phys Chem C 2007, 111:12572–12576.CrossRef 43. Luo T, Huang P, Gao G, Shen GX, Fu S, Cui DX, Zhou CQ, Ren QS: Mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods with embedded indocyanine green for dual mode X-ray CT and NIR fluorescence imaging. Opt Express 2011, 19:17030–17039.CrossRef 44. Pan BF, Cui DX, Xu P, Ozkan C, Feng G, Ozkan M, Huang T, Chu BF, Li Q, He R, Hu GH: Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery

systems. Nanotechnology 2009, 20:125101.CrossRef 45. Pan BF, Cui DX, Gao F, He R: Growth of multi-amine terminated poly (amidoamine) dendrimers on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology 2006, 17:2483–2489.CrossRef

46. Baozhong S: System Protirelin molecular imaging: right around on the corner. Nano Biomed Eng 2014, 6:1–5. 47. Pan BF, Cui DX, Ozkan CS, Ozkan M, Xu P, Huang T, Liu FT, Chen H, Li Q, He R, Gao F: Effects of carbon nanotubes on photoluminescence properties of quantum dots. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112:939–944.CrossRef 48. Peng H, Le B, Chunlei Z, Jing L, Teng L, Dapeng Y, Meng H, Zhiming L, Guo G, Gao Bing F, Shen CD: Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods for X-ray/CT imaging-guided dual-mode radiation and photo-thermal therapy. Biomaterials 2011, 32:9796–9809.CrossRef 49. Liopo A, Conjusteau A, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Oraevsky AA: Laser nanothermolysis of human leukemia cells using functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles. Nano Biomed Eng 2012,4(2):66–75.CrossRef 50. Pan BF, Cui DX, He R, Gao F, Zhang YF: Covalent attachment of quantum dot on carbon nanotubes. Chem Phys Lett 2006, 417:419–424.CrossRef 51. Chen L, Bao CC, Yang H, Li D, Lei C, Wang T, Hu HY, He M, Zhou Y, Cui DX: A prototype of giant magnetoimpedance-based biosensing system for targeted detection of gastric cancer cells. Biosens Bioelectron 2011, 26:3246–3253.CrossRef 52. Niidome T: Development of functional gold nanorods for bioimaging and photothermal therapy. J Phys Conf Ser 2010, 232:012011.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.