coli strain 536 (Tables 1+2) Primers 10f/r served as positive co

coli strain 536 (Tables 1+2). Primers 10f/r served as positive control for general detection of plasmid and chromosomally inherited α-hly determinants. Primers and PCR conditions are listed in Table 2. PCR reactions were performed as described previously [29]. Transcriptional Emricasan price Analysis of α-hlyA genes by qRT-PCR Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed with the Applied Biosystems

7500 real time PCR system (Applied Biosystems) with cDNA samples from bacteria (see above). Transcription rates of the α-hlyA gene were compared to those of the icdA housekeeping gene. Primers hlyA-f 5′ ACCTTGTCAGGACGGCAGAT 3′ and hlyA-r 5′ CCGTGCCATTCTTTTCATCA 3′ and the VIC labeled TaqMan MGB probe 5′ ACTGGGAATTGAAGTCC 3′ were used for amplification of the α-hlyA selleck inhibitor gene. The primers and the gene probe for detection of the icdA gene were described recently [29]. Real time PCR Gemcitabine solubility dmso amplification were performed in an “”icdA & α-hlyA”" multiplex assay and were analyzed with the 7500 system SDS software version 1.4 as described [29]. GenBank accession numbers The following nucleotide sequences derived from the α-hemolysin producing strains and α-hly plasmids from Table 1 were submitted to GenBank: strain 374 (pHly152) [GenBank FN678785]; 84-2195 (pEO9) [GenBank FM210248, FN673699, FN678787]; 84-3208 (pEO11) [GenBank FM210249, FN678787, FN673696]; CB853 (pEO853) [GenBank FM210347, FN678782, FN673701]; 84-R (pEO13)

[GenBank FM210348,

FN678786, FN673698]; 84-2573 (pEO12) [FM210349, FN678784, FN673703]; 84-2 S (pEO14) [GenBank FM210350, FN673697]; CB860 (pEO860) [GenBank FM210351, FN678780, FN673700]; CB855 (pEO855) [GenBank FN678788]; CB857 Methisazone (pEO857) [GenBank (FN678781, FN673702] and strain KK6-16 [FM210352, FN673704]. Acknowledgements Y. Burgos was partially supported from Brazil by “”Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)”", process of number 2006//53805-2. The authors are grateful to Eckhard Strauch (BfR, Berlin) for valuable discussions and suggestions and to Karin Pries for technical assistance. References 1. Welch RA: Pore-forming cytolysins of gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol 1991, 5:521–528.PubMedCrossRef 2. Menestrina G, Moser C, Pellet S, Welch R: Pore-formation by Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) and other members of the RTX toxins family. Toxicology 1994, 87:249–267.PubMedCrossRef 3. Stanley P, Koronakis V, Hughes C: Acylation of Escherichia coli hemolysin: a unique protein lipidation mechanism underlying toxin function. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998, 62:309–333.PubMed 4. Schmidt H, Kernbach C, Karch H: Analysis of the EHEC hly operon and its location in the physical map of the large plasmid of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:h7. Microbiology 1996,142(Pt 4):907–914.PubMedCrossRef 5. Holland IB, Schmitt L, Young J: Type 1 protein secretion in bacteria, the ABC-transporter dependent pathway (review).

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