In addition, recurrent sprains have been linked to increased risk of osteoarthritis and articular degeneration at the ankle joint.10 Subjects with CAI have shown
a greater first peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) compared to the contralateral unaffected limb and lower relative time to peak compared to controls during a v-cut maneuver.11 Rosenbaum et al.12 showed no significant differences in objective data (i.e., vertical jumping height, single leg hopping time, sprint time, and side-cut time) although significant differences between 10 braces were observed in subjective evaluation of performance Dorsomorphin solubility dmso restriction in subjects with CAI. Gribble and colleagues13 found that a lace-up ankle brace does increase dynamic stability measured as resultant GRF vector time to stability in CAI subjects. These studies demonstrated mixed biomechanical and performance results of CAI subjects during dynamic movements. Ankle braces are designed to prevent or treat ankle sprains or recurrences. Many athletes wear them in both games and practices in hope to prevent ankle sprains. It has been demonstrated that wearing ankle braces is effective in reducing ankle sprains.14 and 15 We previously demonstrated effectiveness of a semi-rigid ankle brace with a
heel strapping system (Element™) in an inversion drop and a lateral cutting maneuver.8 In a landing study on flat and inverted surfaces, Zhang et al.16 showed that the first same ankle brace reduced time to 2nd peak vertical GRF, sagittal-plane ankle angle and dorsiflexion selleck chemicals velocity at contact, maximum eversion velocity and plantarflexion velocity, contact inversion angle and peak eversion velocity during landing on both flat and inversion surfaces. Chen and colleagues17 also showed that the semi-rigid ankle brace reduced ankle inversion at contact and peak inversion angles as well as dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in both
landings on an inverted surface and inversion drop on a trapdoor device. McCaw et al.18 found a significantly reduced maximum sagittal-plane ankle angular velocity while wearing an ankle brace in soft and stiff landing. It was also found that the peak vertical GRF and its loading rate significantly increased while the contact ankle sagittal-plane angle significantly decreased during drop landing wearing an ankle brace compared to no brace (NB).19 More recently, Gardner et al.20 demonstrated decreased relative ankle work when wearing a boot ankle brace compared to NB condition during a single-leg landing. The majority of previous research on ankle braces has been conducted on healthy subjects or in subjects with unknown histories of ankle sprains. It is still unclear whether ankle braces can provide similar or greater ankle sprain protection in CAI subjects compared to healthy subjects during landing activities.