Further studies showed that a subset of GISTs contain mutations in another tyrosine kinase Quizartinib mw receptor gene called platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA). Regardless of site of involvement, most GISTs express the CD34 antigen (70-80%) and the CD117 antigen (72-94%). A relatively new immunohistochemistry marker, DOG1, which was discovered using gene expression profiling (13), is highly specific for GISTs. Negativity for both DOG1 and KIT has been observed in only 2.6% of GISTs
of the gastrointestinal tract (13). The term GIST is now generally used to specify a mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that contains Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical either a KIT or PDGFRA driver mutation and displays a characteristic histology which includes spindle, epithelioid, and rarely pleomorphic cells (14). KIT is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays an important role Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the maturation of hematopoetic cells, melanocytes, and interstitial cells of Cajal (11). The binding of stem cell factor to the extracellular domain of the receptor results in autophosphorylation of several tyrosine residues and activation. Once activated KIT phosphorylates other proteins and transcription factors leading to activation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of signal transduction cascades, such as the Ras/MAP kinase
pathway (15). These activated pathways ultimately lead to several cellular modifications including changes in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. KIT mutations are seen in 85% to 95% of GISTs, almost always resulting in ligand-independent activation (11). The mutations tend to cluster in 4 exons: exon 9 (extracellular domain), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exon 11 (intracellular juxtamembrane domain), exon 13 (split kinase domain), and exon 17 (kinase activation loop) (11). Exon 11 mutations are the most common, representing 60% to 70% of the cases. Exon 9 mutations are present in 10% of cases and are associated
with small-bowel location and a more aggressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical behavior. Exon 13 and 17 mutations are rare, each representing approximately 1% of GIST cases (11) (Figure 5). Figure 5 Schematic representation below of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) molecules and the common KIT and PDGFA mutations in GIST. The mutation on the Kit gene at exon 11 is by far the most common cause of GIST Thus far KIT and PDGFRA mutations are thought to be mutually exclusive (11). Approximately 5% to 10% of GISTs harbor PDGFRA mutations involving exons 12, 14, and 18 (11). Akin to KIT mutations, PDGFRA mutations result in ligand-independent activation (11). Almost all PDGFRA-mutant GISTs have an epithelioid morphology and are found in the stomach. CD117 expression in PDGFRA-mutant tumors is often weak and focal or entirely negative (11). Approximately 5% of GISTs do not harbor either KIT or PDGFRA mutations and yet, can still be positive for CD117 by immunohistochemistry (11). These are known as ‘‘wild-type’’ GISTs.