In recent times, the literature has identified a lack of compliance with ventilation guidelines
by emergency care providers in the field, with much of the research highlighting an association between overzealous ventilation and poorer outcomes in cardiac arrest , hypovolaemic shock  and severe head injury . In light of this evidence and changes to the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines for resuscitation, there is a need to investigate and observe the efficacy of manual ventilation among prehospital care providers in relation to operator delivery of ventilation rate and tidal volume There is no literature describing the ability of undergraduate paramedic students to accurately ventilate, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using a self-inflating bag, in a simulated adult cardiac arrest patient. Previous international studies involving prehospital care providers have demonstrated poor compliance
with recommended ventilation guidelines. [5-9] Furthermore, there Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is no Australian context relating the ability of infield paramedics to successfully ventilate an apnoeic or hypoventilating patient. The objective of this study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods Study Design Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical An experimental study using a mechanical lung model to determine ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume in a simulated
adult cardiac arrest scenario. Population and Setting Undergraduate paramedic students in the third year of a pre-registration course, Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) at Monash University, Victoria, Australia were eligible for inclusion in the study. There were 70 students eligible for inclusion in the study, with a Cabozantinib concentration convenience sample of third year students used in the study. At the time of enrolment, participants had undertaken over 28 months Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (or equivalent prior learning) of clinical education at Monash University while a clinical placement program ensured that each participant had undertaken at least 300 hours of in-field practice. While participants were in the process of completing their final year of study, the theory and practice relating to CPR were established in prior subjects of the course. Students were expected to understand and found practice according to the 2005 ILCOR resuscitation guidelines. There were no exclusion criteria. Process A full-torso manikin (Resusci Anne Simulator, Laerdal, Victoria, Australia) was used to represent a simulated 80 kg adult cardiac arrest patient. Ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume were measured using a mechanical lung model (Training/Test Lung Model 1601, Michigan Instruments Inc., Michigan, U.S.A) with a lung compliance and airway resistance values set at 0.05 L/cmH2O and 5 cmH20/L/sec respectively.