All AC (Leader Cath, Vygon, Ecouen, France) were inserted by experienced ICU medical staff using a Seldinger approach. Aseptic precautions for all device insertion included use of a full sized drape, mask, cap, gown and sterile gloves. Chlorhexidine 2% was used for skin antisepsis. Ultrasound guided placement was used where
required. There was no imposed limitation on dwell time, and resite of ACs always occurred at a new site. Dressings and administration sets were maintained by dedicated ICU nurses (1:1 nurse patient ratio) using unit protocols and in accordance with best evidence practice. All ACs were removed on suspicion of CRI by clinicians independent of the study, using the following criteria: intravascular device in situ; 2 or more SIRS criteria (Temperature >38.5°C or <36.0°C, Heart Rate >90 bpm, Respiratory see more Rate >20 bpm or PaCO2 <32 mmHg or requirement for mechanical ventilation, White Blood Cells >12 000 cells/mm3 or <4000 cells/mm3 or presence of >10% immature neutrophils); and no other source of the sepsis evident. All catheter tips were handled under aseptic conditions and immediately, transported to the laboratory for analysis, where they Poziotinib were cultured by the semi-quantitative method .
The cultivation and identification were performed by trained microbiologists in Microbiology Pathology Queensland-Central Laboratory, Australia. Ninety three short-term ACs from four access sites Abiraterone clinical trial (65 radial, 15 femoral, 7 brachial and 5 dorsalis pedis), with a mean catheter in situ time of 6.0 days,
from 82 patients with a mean age of 51.0 years old and APACHE II score of 21.0, were BVD-523 supplier studied. The mean ICU stay was 18.6 days with hospital survival of 86%. The arterial catheter related colonisation rates were 15.0/1000 device days and catheter related bloodstream infections rates were 3.8/1000 device days. These rates reflect the selection of the cohort as those suspected clinically of catheter related infection. There were no significant associations observed between antibiotic usage and AC colonisation or bloodstream infections (p = 0.126). From this original cohort, 5 ‘colonised’ and 5′uncolonised’ ACs were randomly selected for further study (Table 1). The 5 colonised ACs comprised 2 mixed coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 2 S. epidermidis and 1 P. aeruginosa. No bacterial species were recovered from the uncolonised catheters using the semi-quantitive method. Table 1 Comparison of the species richness, evenness, diversity of the 16S rRNA gene clones from two groups of ACs. AC group Catheter Maki result No. of No. of Richness indices Evenness Diversity index (based on numbers clones OTUs index Maki’s results) ≥97% Chao ACE Shannon Simpson Uncolonised ACs 1 No-growth 31 18 11 No-growth 24 19 16 No-growth 27 15 48 55 0.88 3.31 0.