However, the T-score cannot be used interchangeably with different techniques and at different sites, since the prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of individuals allocated to any diagnostic
category would vary (Table 2), as does the risk of fracture. Table 2 Estimates of T-scores and the prevalence of osteoporosis according to site and technique  Measurement site Technique T-score at 60 years WHO classification Prevalence of osteoporosis (%) Spine QCT −2.5 Osteoporosis 50 Spine Lateral DXA −2.2 Low bone mass 38 Spine DXA −1.3 Low bone mass 14 Forearm DXA −1. 4 Low bone mass 12 Heel Achilles −1.5 Low bone mass 11 Total BIBW2992 concentration hip DXA −0.9 Normal 6 Heel Sahara −0.7 Normal 3 These considerations have led to the adoption of the femoral neck as the reference
site , but do not preclude the use of other sites and technologies in clinical practice, though it should be recognised that the information derived from the T-score will differ from that provided by BMD at the femoral neck. Measurement of multiple skeletal sites A number of guidelines favour the concurrent use of BMD at the proximal femur and at the lumbar spine for patient assessment. Patients are defined as CFTRinh-172 cost having osteoporosis on the basis of the lower of two T-scores [41, 42]. The prediction of fracture is, however, not through improved overall by the use of multiple sites [43–45]. check details Selection of patients on the basis of a minimum value from
two or more tests will, however, increase the number of patients selected. The same result can be achieved by less stringent criteria for the definition of osteoporosis, by defining osteoporosis, for example, as a T-score of ≤−2.0 SD rather than ≤−2.5 SD. Notwithstanding, the measurement of more than one site can aid in the assessment of individuals (discussed below). Osteopenia It is recommended that diagnostic criteria be reserved for osteoporosis and that osteopenia should not be considered a disease category. Rather, the description of osteopenia is solely intended for purposes of epidemiological description. Prevalence of osteoporosis Because the distribution of BMD in the young healthy population is normally distributed and bone loss occurs with advancing age, the prevalence of osteoporosis increases with age. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the largest countries in the EU (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and UK) using the WHO criteria is shown for women in Table 3 [13, 46]. Approximately 21 % of women aged 50–84 years are classified as having osteoporosis accounting for more than 12 million women in these countries.