These changes were suppressed by blood pressure non-dependent in

These changes were suppressed by blood pressure non-dependent in the WT-Aldo+Eple.

Furthermore, caspase-1-positive cells in the kidney were merged with the immunofluorescent staining Metformin order for the macrophage marker F4/80. Therefore, inflammasomes were mainly activated in the infiltrating macrophages. Tubulointerstitial injuries were significantly attenuated in the ASCKO-Aldo. Increased Caspase-1 activity and expressions of IL-1β and IL-18 were also attenuated in ASCKO-Aldo. The production of IL-1β and IL-18 were detectable in the supernatant of macrophages by Aldo stimulation. These changes were suppressed by eplerenone. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Aldo induced interstitial fibrosis via activation of inflammasomes in infiltrated macrophages. Thus, inflammasome activation in macrophages could be a new therapeutic target for CKD. TAKAORI KOJI1, DNA Damage inhibitor NAKAMURA JIN1, YAMAMOTO TADASHI2, YANAGITA MOTOKO1 1Department of Nephrology, Kyoto University; 2Department of Structural Pathology, Niigata University Introduction: Recently we clarified that renal fibroblasts including erythropoietin (Epo) producing cells transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts and predominantly contribute to fibrosis, with concomitant loss

of Epo production in the diseased kidney. It remains unclear, however, what triggers the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and how proximal tubule injury affects other segment of

the nephron. Methods: For in vitro analysis, we utilized co-culture of renal fibroblasts and tubular epithelial cells. For in vivo analysis, we utilized N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (Ndrg1)CreERT2 inducible simian diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice (Ndrg1CreERT2:iDTR mice) in which Cre-mediated excision of a STOP cassette is achieved after the administration of tamoxifen, and renders proximal tubules sensitive to diphtheria toxin (DT). Furthermore, we utilized Uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 (USAG1)-LacZ mice in which LacZ is expressed in Venetoclax clinical trial distal tubules and examined the expression profile of LacZ-positive distal tubule cells after the administration of DT. Results: First, we confirmed that DTR is expressed in almost all proximal tubules and a part of collecting duct in the kidney of Ndrg1-CreERT2:iDTR mice. A single DT injection to these mice causes proximal tubule injury and interstitial fibrosis accompanied with the proliferation of proximal tubules and fibroblasts. While electric microscopy examinations reveal the normal glomerular structure, massive proteinuria was observed after the injection of DT. We also confirmed the induction of collagen expression in fibroblasts when co-cultured with damaged tubular epithelial cells. We further demonstrated the induction of distal tubule injury after the administration of DT to Ndrg1-CreERT2:iDTR:USAG1-LacZ mice.

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