Our data are consistent with this hypothesis and we show that the

Our data are consistent with this hypothesis and we show that these see more types of interchromosomal translocations reflect interchromosomal CSR based on our findings

that AID activity is required. It should be noted, however, that in our VV29 transgenic mice, interchromosomal translocations can occur in vitro, whereas in Δ3′RR transgenic mice interchromosomal translocations can only be detected in vivo. As the VV29 transgene does not contain either the 3′RR or all the Igh locus sequences downstream the Cμ gene, translocation to the endogenous Igh locus is the only CSR mechanism to repair transgene Sμ AID-induced DNA damage. On the other hand, in the Δ3′RR transgene the presence of all of Igh locus S regions together with their surrounding sequences might lead to abortive downstream intrachromosomal CSR processes that compete with the interchromosomal translocation. Based on our findings, together with the previous studies, and the fact that the frequencies of in vitro interchromosomal translocation in the VV29 B cells are orders of

magnitude higher than c-myc/Igh translocation Selleckchem R788 frequencies 17 yet comparable to the frequencies of interallelic CSR among endogenous Igh loci 2, we conclude that interchromosomal translocations involving the Igh locus occur by an AID-medicated CSR mechanism and occur more often between chromosomes that share Igh-associated regulatory elements. It would be interesting to determine whether the presence of a switch region or Igh enhancer elements near the c-myc gene would

increase the frequency of translocations to the Igh locus. In VV29 B cells that are undergoing CSR, we can find only VV29 VDJ regions expressed with the VV29 transgenic Cμ gene and not the endogenous Cμ gene although we can easily detect the expression of the VV29 region with endogenous Cγ regions. These results indicate that Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK VV29 transgene translocations into the Igh locus do not involve trans-switching between the transgene Sμ and the endogenous Sμ regions, implying that Sμ regions may be differentially regulated from downstream S regions, perhaps to give directionality to the CSR machinery. One source of regulation may be chromosomal looping that associates the intronic Eμ enhancer with the downstream 3′RR enhancers during CSR 28. It is possible that DNA looping or protein complexes block Sμ regions from recombining with their chromosomal homologues. On the other hand, the DNA looping structure could leave downstream S regions more exposed to participate in interchromosomal recombination. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has indicated that two homologous Sμ regions do not recombine via trans-switching.

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