RCF conducted the microarrays and performed the analysis,

RCF conducted the microarrays and performed the analysis, constructed the logo, participated in motility studies, and contributed to the editing of the manuscript. AV-T and JJ-C carried-out all of the mice studies. MM and SP constructed and provided the microarray slides. HMH conceived the idea, directed the research, and contributed to the writing/editing of the manuscript. All authors have read

and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In natural environments, bacteria can adhere to surfaces forming a complex structure called a biofilm. When embedded in biofilms, microorganisms can be protected from several adverse factors SRT1720 solubility dmso such as temperature, low nutrients and the presence of biocides [1–6]. Therefore, understanding the ecology of microorganisms selleck inhibitor in this structure is fundamental in order to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of real systems. In nature, biofilms typically consist of many species of microorganisms that

can interact with each other either positively (for instance, the synthesis of a metabolite by one species which can be used in the metabolism of another) or negatively (such as nutrient competition) [7–9]. One type of biofilm that has been widely buy Volasertib studied is that formed in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) because of its role in the persistence of pathogens in drinking water and the consequent potential for impact on public health [10–12]. Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen that can cause Legionnaires’ disease or Pontiac fever [13, 14]. This pathogen is found naturally in fresh water reservoirs and can contaminate drinking water when disinfection is inefficient, Edoxaban being transmitted to man when contaminated aerosols are inhaled [12, 15–17]. The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains controversial but drinking water as a route of transmission has recently gained recognition [18]. Although no cultivable H. pylori have

ever been recovered from drinking water systems, molecular techniques such as PCR [19–22] and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes used to target 16 S rRNA in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays [23, 24], have demonstrated the presence of this pathogen in DWDS. This identification, in addition to epidemiological studies, point to different prevalence of H. pylori in the microbial population which is associated with the type of source water. This strongly supports water as a route of transmission [18, 25–27]. Previous studies have demonstrated that both pathogens can be incorporated into heterotrophic drinking water biofilms and persist for at least 32 days [28, 29]. In the case of H.

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