After Ga ion implantation, the conductivity of the Ge nanowires i

After Ga ion implantation, the conductivity of the Ge nanowires improved to approximately two orders of magnitude, but with implantation fluences above 6.25 × 1012 ions/cm2, the conductivity of the Ge nanowire fell sharply. In the paper, the author ascribed the increase in conductivity to

a substitutional activation of Ga in the Ge nanowires; the conductivity decrease at high doses is attributed to defect generation and, finally, amorphization. Paschoal et al. [33] reported that the transport characteristic of Mn+-implanted GaAs nanowires is governed by nearest neighbor hopping at high temperature (T > 180 K) and Mott variable range hopping at low temperature (50 K < T < 180 K). Yan et al. [34] reported that conductivity of the carbon nanotube (CNT) networks is enhanced by H ion beam irradiation. Figure 5 I-V curves of nanowires. (a) three B-implanted NWs, (b) three P-implanted NWs and (c) three As-implanted NWs. I-V curve of an as-grown, Obeticholic unimplanted NW is included in each case for comparison. Reprinted with permission from Kanungo et al. [29]. Figure 6 Ohmic current–voltage characteristics of TLM structures. These TLM structures

(see inset scale bar 1 μm) are prepared on (a) as-grown, (b) as-grown and annealed, and (c) Zn-implanted and annealed GaAs nanowires. The second inset shows the I-V curves of (a) and (b) in a more adequate current scale. Reprinted with permission from Kanungo et al. [17]. The major aim of doping in nanowires is to produce a p-n junction in semiconductor nanowires. Hoffmann et al. [35] demonstrated a method to produce an axial p-n junction in silicon nanowires by ion implantation. By varying the

implantation energy, the incident ions can Urease stay at different sites in the nanowire. Hoffmann et al. implanted P and B ions into vertically aligned silicon nanowires to produce p-n junctions inside the silicon nanowire. Figure 7 shows the I-V curves of silicon nanowires which have already formed p-n junction by ion implantation. A typical I-V curve of the n-p junction is shown in Figure 7a. All the I-V curves in Figure 7b show a rectifying behavior, but the conductivity of the nanowires with different probe-nanowire contact type has a different magnitude. The red curve is the first recorded sweep (contact types show in the left inset). The phenomena that appeared in Figure 7b may be attributed to the Schottky barrier formed between the nanowire and the probe. Several MK-1775 months later, Kanungo et al. [36] reported another method to fabricate axial p-n junctions in silicon nanowires. They fabricated vertical silicon nanowires; the lower halves of the nanowires were doped with boron, and then phosphorus ions were implanted into the upper halves of the nanowires. Figure 7 I-V curves of n-p and p-n nanowires. (a) n-p Nanowires (n-doped at the top and p-doped at the bottom) and (b) p-n nanowires (p-doped at the top and n-doped at the bottom). Reprinted with permission from Hoffmann et al.

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