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for confocal microscopy assays. KMO and BRSN prepared the interaction maps. RAS and GOQ performed Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics. ARV and MJSMG performed confocal microscopy assays. KMO, BRSN, RAS, MJSMG, JAP, CMAS and MP contributed to the discussion of the data and preparation of the manuscript. MP conceived, designed and coordinated the study. All authors contributed to the discussion of results. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background According many to the report of FAO, US $120 billion losses worldwide were caused by 20–40% decrease in crop yield, due to the attack from pathogenic organisms and insect pests . Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura are the major polyphagous pests attacking more than 150 different host species and affect the vegetable yield . Therefore these pests are considered as the most economically important insect pests in many countries including India, Japan, China and Southeast Asia. Controlling these polyphagous pests becomes the challenging work in agriculture field. There are few chemical insecticides and pesticides are commercially available in the market.