We thank Dr Pavel Strnad for valuable comments Additional Suppo

We thank Dr. Pavel Strnad for valuable comments. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Hepatocyte proliferation early after liver resection is critical in restoring liver mass and preserving function as the liver regenerates. Carbon monoxide (CO) generated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) strongly influences cellular proliferation and both HO-1 and CO are accepted hepatoprotective molecules. Mice lacking functional HO-1 were unable to mount an appropriate regenerative response following partial hepatectomy (PHTx) compared to wildtype controls. We therefore hypothesized that exogenous administration of CO

at low, nontoxic concentrations Tanespimycin solubility dmso would modulate hepatocyte (HC) proliferation and liver regeneration. Animals treated with a low concentration of CO 1 hour prior to 70% hepatectomy demonstrated enhanced expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the liver compared to controls that correlated with a more rapid onset of HC proliferation as measured by phospho-histone3 staining, increased expression of cyclins D1 and E, phosphorylated retinoblastoma, and decreased

expression of the mitotic inhibitor p21. PHTx also increased activation of the HGF receptor c-Met, which was detected more then 9 hours earlier in the livers of CO-treated mice. Blockade of c-Met resulted in abrogation of the CO effects SB203580 order on HC proliferation. Corresponding with increased HC proliferation, treatment with CO maintained liver function with normal prothrombin times versus a 2-fold prolongation in controls. In a lethal 85% PHTx, CO-treated mice showed a greater survival rate compared to controls. In vitro, CO increased HGF expression in hepatic stellate cells, but not HC, and when cocultured together led to increased HC proliferation. In summary,

we demonstrate that administration of exogenous CO enhances rapid and early HC proliferation and, importantly, preserves function following PHTx. Taken together, CO may offer a viable therapeutic Carbohydrate option to facilitate rapid recovery following PHTx. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;) Under normal conditions, hepatocytes are quiescent, yet possess the unique and powerful ability to regenerate after hepatic resection or injury.1-4 Once surgical procedures such as partial hepatectomy (PHTx) or living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are performed, mitosis of the hepatocytes begins within 24-48 hours and the residual liver hypertrophies to compensate for the resected liver volume and impaired function. This hypertrophy occurs rapidly, reaching 90% of its preresection volume within 4-6 weeks in humans.5 The clinical application of PHTx or LDLT for the treatment of primary or metastatic liver tumors and endstage liver disease depends on this fundamental ability of the liver to regenerate.

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