We have described the fabrication of highly versatile devices tha

We have described the fabrication of highly versatile devices that allow for the simultaneous recording of large numbers of neurons and the optical activation or silencing of select subpopulations of neurons within the recorded area. These devices can be used in any brain area that is accessible to thin silicon probes, and are suitable for both anesthetized and awake recording conditions in behaving animals. When paired with the expression of light-sensitive actuators within genetically specified neuronal populations,

these devices allow the relatively straightforward and interpretable manipulation of network activity. Future development of optoelectronic probes may include the use of light-emitting diode (LED)-coupled fibers, waveguides for light in the silicon probe substrate and on-site organic-LEDs, Belnacasan price combined to further see more decrease probe volume. This work was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. We thank T. Adelman, S. Bassin, J. Osborne and T. Tabachnik for their technical contribution, and G. Shtengel and D. Huber for useful discussions. Abbreviations AAV adenoassociated virus ChR2 channelrhodopsin-2 GFP green-fluorescent protein NpHR halorhodopsin PV

parvalbumin “
“We review the history of efforts to apply central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to restore consciousness in patients in a coma or vegetative state by changing the arousal state. Early experimental and clinical studies, and the results of a recent single-subject human study that demonstrated both immediate behavioral facilitation and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are reviewed. We consider possible mechanisms underlying CT/DBS effects on cognitively-mediated behaviors in conscious patients in light of the anatomical connectivity and physiological specializations of the central thalamus. Immediate and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are discussed

within the context of possible effects on neuronal plasticity and gene expression. We conclude that CT/DBS should be studied as a therapeutic intervention to improve impaired cognitive function in severely brain-injured patients who, in addition to demonstrating clinical evidence of consciousness Miconazole and goal-directed behavior, retain sufficient preservation of large-scale cerebral networks within the anterior forebrain. Although available data provide evidence for proof-of-concept, very significant challenges for study design and development of CT/DBS for clinical use are identified. “
“In the last 10¬†years, many studies have reported that neural stem/progenitor cells spontaneously produce new neurons in a subset of adult brain regions, including the hippocampus, olfactory bulb (OB), cerebral cortex, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, white matter and amygdala in several mammalian species. Although adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and OB has been clearly documented, its occurrence in other brain regions is controversial.

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