We analyzed the MGB projections to 13 auditory areas in the cat u

We analyzed the MGB projections to 13 auditory areas in the cat using two retrograde tracers to investigate thalamocortical nuclear origins, topography, convergence,

and divergence. MGB divisions and auditory cortex areas were defined independently of the connectional results using architectonic, histochemical, and immunocytochemical criteria. Each auditory cortex area received a unique pattern of input from several MGB nuclei, and these patterns of input identify four groups of cortical areas distinguished by their putative functional affiliations: tonotopic, nontonotopic, multisensory, and limbic. Each P505-15 family of areas received projections from a functionally related set of MGB nuclei; some nuclei project to only a few areas (e.g., the MGB ventral division to tonotopic areas), and others project to all areas (e.g., the medial division input to every auditory cortical area and to other regions). Projections to tonotopic areas had fewer nuclear origins than those to multisensory or limbic-affiliated fields. All projections were organized topographically, even those from nontonotopic nuclei. The few divergent neurons (mean: 2%) are

consistent with a model of multiple segregated streams ascending to auditory SHP099 price cortex. The expanded cortical representation of MGB auditory, multisensory, and limbic affiliated streams appears to be a primary facet of forebrain auditory function. The emergence of several auditory cortex representations of characteristic frequency may be a functional multiplication of the more limited maps in the MGB. This expansion suggests emergent cortical roles consistent with the divergence of thalamocortical connections.”
“Objective: To test the association between polymorphisms rs9939609 T>A and rs8050136 A>C of the fat mass and

obesity-associated (FTO) gene and metabolic and cardiovascular variables in postmenopause.\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional WZB117 datasheet study.\n\nSetting: University hospital.\n\nPatient(s): A total of 135 postmenopausal women (mean age 52 +/- 4 years).\n\nIntervention(s): Anthropometric measurements and collection of blood samples.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): Blood pressure, metabolic variables, and FTO genotype.\n\nResult(s): The frequency of polymorphism rs9939609 was 43.7% for the wild TT genotype, 43.0% for TA, and 13.3% for AA. The frequency of the rs8050136 polymorphism was 12.6% for the wild AA genotype, 39.3% for AC, and 48.1% for CC. The polymorphic AA genotype of the SNP rs9939609 was associated with higher glucose levels and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, whereas the wild AA genotype of the SNP rs8050136 was associated with higher LAP.\n\nConclusion(s): The rs9939609 polymorphism in the FTO gene is related to abnormal glucose levels and with LAP, a surrogate marker of diabetes and cardiovascular risk in postmenopause.

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