We also conducted quantitative real-time RT-PCR to analyze the tr

We also conducted quantitative real-time RT-PCR to analyze the transcriptional level of the yncD gene in the wild-type cells under different GSK2126458 molecular weight conditions. As shown in Fig. 1a and b, the yncD gene expression showed an acid induction feature. However, other conditions such as supplementation

with 10 mM FeCl3, an inducing factor for PmrAB two-component regulatory system in S. Typhimurium (Marchal et al., 2004), or heat shock, shown to induce yncD gene expression in Y. pestis (Han et al., 2005), have no significant effect on yncD gene expression in our experiments. The disparity is believed to be due to the presence of magnesium in the α-MEM. Millimolar magnesium represses the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ, which indirectly represses the PmrAB by reducing the expression of PmrD, which regulates PmrA activity at a post-transcriptional level (Garcia-Véscovi et al., 1996; Kox et al., 2000; Kato & Groisman, 2004). However, as a common activation signal of both the PmrAB and PhoPQ systems, acidic pH had been shown to activate PmrAB in spite of the presence of magnesium (Perez & Groisman,

2007). Blanvillain et al. (2007) performed a survey of TBDTs in 226 completely sequenced eubacterial genomes revealing a broad variation in TBDT number in the surveyed bacteria. Interestingly, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, no important human pathogen was found among the bacteria with TBDT-overrepresentation. However, many human Obeticholic Acid solubility dmso pathogens, e.g. Borrelia, Chlamydia, Coxiella, Francisella and Legionella, were found among bacteria without TBDT. Most of them were human or animal obligate Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase parasites. Thus, the number of TBDTs in a bacterial strain seems to depend on the ecological niche diversity of the strain and is inversely related to a close relationship with human or animal, as in parasitism. As proteins located on the surface of bacterial cells, TBDTs are

undoubtedly antigenic candidates. If a pathogen enters a host body, these antigens can induce specific antibodies that may inhibit the growth, propagation and pathogenesis of the pathogen. A large number of TBDTs are seemingly not optimal choices for pathogens if other selections are available. However, in some human pathogens such as S. Typhi, notwithstanding the long process of evolution, six TBDTs are still reserved, indicating their essential role in habitat survival, e.g. in the human body. In the present study, we found that deleting the yncD gene of S. Typhi leads to significant attenuation in the porcine gastric mucin model. The model has been used to evaluate the degree of attenuation of some S. Typhi vaccine strains, CVD 906, CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA and CVD 915 (Hone et al., 1991; Wang et al., 2001). Although the model does not closely mimic the pathogenesis of human typhoid infection, it reflects the survival capability of pathogen in vivo.

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