Usually, TB diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and r

Usually, TB diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and radiological examination, epidemiological investigation, appropriate response to anti-tuberculosis therapy and microbiological tests (bacilloscopy and culture) for confirmation. However, diagnosis in children is very difficult, especially in the youngest, Veliparib because they are paucibacillary, thereby lowering the sensitivity of microbiological

tests, and do not exhibit specific symptoms of TB [6]. The risk of progression from LTBI to TB disease is higher immediately after infection with the bacillus, although it decreases over time [5]. In children, the risk of developing TB disease is higher in the youngest and is inversely related to age [7], occurring approximately 2 years after infection [8]. LTBI is characterized by an asymptomatic phase or a state with no specific signs and symptoms of active TB [5]. This latent phase can persist for many years with a

risk of disease reactivation of approximately 10% [9, 10]. In endemic countries, such as Brazil, high TB disease rates are probably maintained because there are substantial levels of exogenous re-infection, in addition to endogenous re-infection by way of self-inspiration of host-infected aerosols, contributing to maintaining latency [2, 5, 11]. For this reason, it is necessary to provide preventive and efficient treatment as soon as possible so as to control the progression of TB in infected people [7, 12]. Furthermore, there is a need for further immunological research to identify vaccines that are more efficient than the conventional Selleckchem Doramapimod Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), new treatments and more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods [5], especially for use in populations, such as children, among whom diagnosis may be difficult. In the 20th century, the tuberculin skin test (TST) was used worldwide for the diagnosis of TB disease and for the detection of LTBI [2, 13]. However, this test, which uses the purified protein derivative (PPD), shows cross-reactivity to antigens that Urease are shared

by environmental species of mycobacteria as well as by the BCG vaccine [13, 14]. TST, therefore, has a number of drawbacks, such as low specificity in countries such as Brazil where BCG vaccination is routine and exposure to environmental mycobacteria is very common [13, 15, 16]. New strategies for the specific diagnosis of LTBI and TB disease in children are thus urgently needed to overcome the limitations of PPD [15, 17, 18]. A new generation of diagnostic tests has been proposed to resolve these issues, and these represent an important technical innovation with regard to diagnosis of both TB disease and LTBI [19]. These tests are based on the measurement of IFN-γ levels secreted by T cells, the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), in response to specific antigens of the M.

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