This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical

This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12607000641493.

Findings 71 patients were in the azithromycin group and 70 in the placebo group. The rate of event-based exacerbations was 0.59 per patient in the azithromycin group and 1.57 per patient in the placebo group in the 6-month

treatment period (rate ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.54; check details p<0.0001). Prebronchodilator FEV1 did not change from baseline in the azithromycin group and decreased by 0.04 L in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant (0.04 L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.12; p=0.251). Additionally, change in SGRQ total score did not differ between the azithromycin (-5.17 units) and placebo groups (-1.92 units; difference -3.25, 95% CI -7.21 to 0.72; p=0.108).

Interpretation Azithromycin is a new option for prevention Smad inhibitor of exacerbations in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with a history of at least one exacerbation in the past year.”
“Behavioral and executive dysfunctions are typical symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, associated with its subtypes frontotemporal

and semantic dementia. Although both functions depend on the frontal lobes, no study has yet compared their neural correlates in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Accordingly, we correlated clinical scores of behavioral and executive deficits with glucose utilization as measured by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose

positron emission tomography in 17 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 9 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Impairment in executive functions was measured by the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome, a modified Stroop paradigm and/or the Tower of Toronto Test. Behavioral deficits were examined with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Executive dysfunction was correlated with diminished glucose utilization in frontomedial and frontolateral cortices. Brain regions included the anterior cingulate and midcingulate gyri, anterior medial ROS1 frontal cortex, and left frontolateral cortex. Behavioral deficits were associated with mainly frontomedial networks, particularly the anterior medial frontal cortex, gyrus rectus, and area subcallosa. Our pilot study reveals partially overlapping neural correlates of executive and behavioral dysfunction in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The results suggest that some behavioral deficits, namely disinhibition and appetite and eating abnormalities, are particularly related to executive dysfunction. This hypothesis might be further explored in studies involving larger patient groups. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The stability and efficacy of neuronal circuits are achieved through a detailed balance between pyramidal cell and interneuron activities.

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