Thirdly, the data presented in this workshop highlights that the

Thirdly, the data presented in this workshop highlights that the clinical pattern of intussusception in resource poor African countries is distinctly different from other regions, particularly industrialized countries, with well-developed healthcare infrastructure. Intussusception is a potentially fatal condition, Torin 1 mw and delays in presentation and treatment are the strongest predictors of poor outcome [21]. While prevalence of surgery is typically <50% and case-fatality <1% among intussusception events in many industrialized

countries [14], nearly 90% of the intussusception cases were managed operatively and ∼13% of those who presented at the hospital died (Table 1). Delays in presentation and diagnosis

are likely reasons for this disparate finding in case outcomes and will be an important consideration when establishing intussusception surveillance in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical findings for intussusception are often non-specific; and relying on specific Level I Brighton Collaboration case-definition for intussusception that requires either surgical, diagnostic, or autopsy confirmation will be important [22]. As was noted in the workshop, diagnostic studies (e.g., ultrasound, contrast enema) are not commonly available in most African countries, and most cases are typically identified at Dasatinib surgery. Thus, integrating

surveillance with surgical teams at large sentinel sites will be important for case identification. Deaths occurring outside the hospital or within the hospital prior to surgery are also likely to occur, however, autopsies are not commonly performed thus posing logistical challenges in capturing these events. Finally, the case-fatality rate of 13% in nearly a thousand intussusception events across Africa is particularly important information for benefit risk considerations with regard to rotavirus vaccines. Although this likely underestimates the true case-fatality of intussusception in Africa, as deaths are likely to occur out of almost hospital, it provides a starting frame of reference for benefit risk calculations in Africa. Spontaneous resolution of intussusception events has also been documented [23], and this could further complicate estimates of the true case-fatality in this region. This highlights the need for further studies to establish the background rates of intussusception and to ascertain a firmer estimate of the case-fatality in African populations. In the absence of reliable case-fatality data from Africa, previous studies of benefit risk calculations have assumed a high case-fatality of 50% [17], which was substantially higher than that reported from this workshop. This has important implications.

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