These crystallographic studies have been inhibitors complemented by ultrastructural studies of virions using negative stain electron microscopy and more recently by cryomicroscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens that preserves native structure. Electron cryotomography provides a further advance
in our understanding of influenza virus ultrastructure by reconstructing three-dimensional maps of the frozen-hydrated specimen  and . The resulting reconstructions are at considerably lower resolution than X-ray crystal structures because of radiation damage due to the requirement of recording many images of the same specimen. Furthermore, limited tilt angles cause blurring in one direction. Therefore interpretation and modeling must take into account the anisotropic resolution of the maps. Nevertheless, the interpretation of three-dimensional maps with X-ray structures Pexidartinib datasheet creates a molecular model of virus architecture. Here we describe three-dimensional maps of A/Aichi/68 X-31 and A/Udorn/72 virions determined by electron cryotomography. The latter strain maintains a filamentous phenotype in the laboratory and displays a structural regularity that may be exploited for structural study  and . We build a model for the virus surface glycoproteins by placing X-ray
models for the HA ectodomain at glycoprotein positions in the map. The models define structural parameters for the virus that have important consequences for understanding viral infection and the host immune response. Growth, purification, and cryotomography of A/Udorn/72 and A/Aichi/68 X-31 virus MLN8237 mouse were done as previously described . Structural models of the virus envelope were constructed by selecting cylindrical regions of virions and placing the X-ray models (pdb id 1HGE) into spike density perpendicular to the surface. Intermolecular distances were calculated between the centers-of-mass of the HA models (78 Å from membrane). For studies of FI6 Fab binding , the model (pdb id 3ZTJ) below with different numbers of Fabs bound was examined
for overlap with other HA models. To measure the relative distance of receptor binding sites, the O2 position of the sialic acid in the receptor-binding site was determined for all HA coordinates built on the virus surface. Cryotomography was used to study the three-dimensional structure of frozen-hydrated influenza virions (H3N2). Udorn virions typically show a capsular (cylindrical with hemispherical caps at the ends) or filamentous morphology. Fig. 1a shows a tomogram slice of a capsule-shaped Udorn virion with its long axis lying in the plane of the ice film. RNPs run the length of the virion inside the lipid bilayer, which is lined on the inside with a layer of the M1 protein, and on the outside by glycoprotein spikes.