The minimal amount of change
associated with clinical improvement has yet to be determined. Reliability: In a recent systematic review Hebert et al (2009) concluded that the majority of high quality studies indicated that RUSI has good intrarater and inter-rater reliability (ICC > 0.90). The standard error of measurement was decreased by nearly 25% when using a mean of two measures and by 50% when using a mean of three measures ( Koppenhaver et al 2009b). Novice raters, when properly trained, can assess the trunk muscles reliably (ICC 0.86 to 0.94) ( Teyhen et al 2011). Influence of sex and body mass index: Muscle thickness and cross sectional area MDV3100 in vivo is greater in males than females and is associated with increased body mass index ( Teyhen et al 2007). The evidence for neuromuscular BIBW2992 cost control deficits in those with neuromusculoskeletal
conditions continues to grow. However, there are very few clinical tools that allow clinicians to measure these deficits reliably in an efficient and non-invasive manner. Evidence for the use of USI as a strategy to assist with these patient populations is growing. Guidelines and overviews of the use of USI to assess the abdominal, paraspinal, and pelvic floor muscles have been published to help guide clinicians who want to implement USI into their clinical setting (Teyhen et al 2007). Although evidence for the role of USI to aid in rehabilitation continues to grow there are still a lot of unanswered questions. Future research needs to better define the limitations of USI to measure muscle function and the associated factors that influence change in muscle
thickness as seen on USI. Additionally, future research needs to determine optimal training strategies to ensure that clinicians using USI are properly trained to utilise and interpret USI as next an effective adjunct to traditional physical therapy interventions. The view(s) expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Army Medical Department, the U.S. Army Office of the Surgeon General, the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. “
“The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was developed to measure current shoulder pain and disability in an outpatient setting. The SPADI contains 13 items that assess two domains; a 5-item subscale that measures pain and an 8-item subscale that measures disability. There are two versions of the SPADI; the original version has each item scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a second version has items scored on a numerical rating scale (NRS). The latter version was developed to make the tool easier to administer and score (Williams et al 1995). Both versions take less than five minutes to complete (Beaton et al 1996, Williams et al 1995).