Since the referents were age- and sex-matched with every NSCLC ca

Since the referents were age- and sex-matched with every NSCLC case, the loss-of-QALE would be the expected lifetime utility loss from developing the disease, and the difference between that of operable and inoperable NSCLC patients would be the expected lifetime utility difference after adjustment for lead-time bias. We further performed a stratified analysis among patients with stage IIIA NSCLC using the above methods. The lifetime utility difference between

operable and inoperable stage IIIA patients was also estimated. To validate the extrapolation method, we used the survival data of patients who were diagnosed during the first 4 years and then extrapolated them to 7 years through the previously described method. Because these patients Oligomycin A price were actually monitored until the end of 2011, the mean survival duration within the 7-year follow-up, using Kaplan–Meier method, was considered as the gold standard. The relative bias was computed to compare the difference in values between the extrapolation and Kaplan–Meier estimation. A total of 2045 patients visited NCKUH between 2005 and 2011. Individuals with incomplete Pirfenidone data (n = 20) or no information of performance status (n = 108, 5 of them received curative operation) were not included, leaving 1917 patients

for this study. Those with performance status 2–4 (n = 265, 16 of them received curative operation) were then excluded, and thus the cohort for analysis of survival function consisted of 1652 patients. The prospectively collected cross-sectional subsample for measuring the QoL consisted of 518 participants, and 1147 QoL measurements were performed. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of patients with operable and inoperable Interleukin-3 receptor NSCLC for analysis of survival function and measuring the QoL. Operable patients were 1.6 years younger than inoperable patients

(p < 0.05). The operable subsample for QoL had more male participants than the inoperable subsample (p = 0.019). The distributions of tumor stage and comorbidities in each group of patients were also elucidated. The characteristics of QoL measurements are summarized in Table 2. The utility values of QoL for patients with operable NSCLC were higher than those of inoperable patients. Compared with young-aged patients, old-aged patients had lower utility values of QoL. To obtain the quality-adjusted survival curve (Fig. 1), we multiplied the survival probability by the mean QoL at each time t (duration-to-date). The sum of the shaded area under the curve represents the QALE. Borrowing the utility function of the age- and sex-matched referents from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan, the difference between the area under the quality-adjusted survival curve of the cancer cohort and that of the referents is the loss-of-QALE ( Fig. 2).

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