It remains unknown whether RGMa plays a role in the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that RGMa, if it is concentrated on amyloid plaques, might contribute to a regenerative failure of degenerating axons in AD brains. Methods: By immunohistochemistry, we studied RGMa and neogenin (NEO1) expression in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of 6 AD and 12 control cases. The levels of RGMa expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot in cultured human astrocytes following exposure
to cytokines and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Results: In AD brains, an intense RGMa immunoreactivity was identified on amyloid plaques Copanlisib cost and in the glial scar. In the control brains, the glial scar and vascular foot processes of astrocytes expressed RGMa immunoreactivity, while oligodendrocytes and microglia were negative for RGMa. In AD brains, a small subset of amyloid plaques expressed a weak NEO1 immunoreactivity, while some reactive astrocytes in both AD and control brains showed INCB024360 datasheet an intense NEO1 immunoreactivity. In human astrocytes, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1), Aβ1–40 or Aβ1–42 markedly elevated the levels of RGMa, and TGFβ1 also increased its own levels. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis validated the molecular interaction between RGMa and
the C-terminal fragment β of amyloid beta precursor protein (APP). Furthermore, recombinant RGMa protein interacted with amyloid clonidine plaques in situ. Conclusions: RGMa, produced by TGFβ-activated astrocytes and accumulated in amyloid plaques and the glial scar, could contribute to the regenerative failure of degenerating axons in AD brains. “
“Chronic granulomatous CNS infections may be caused by tuberculosis, fungi and rarely by free-living amoeba, especially in immunocompromised individuals. We report a rare, fatal case of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in an immunocompetent patient mimicking CNS
tuberculosis, and review the imageological features and diagnostic tests. “
“A 57-year old man with chronic alcoholism presented with apraxia of speech and disturbance of consciousness. He had a history of gastrectomy and had been drinking alcohol. The symptoms improved with administration of thiamine, but he later developed diarrhea and delirium, and died approximately 40 days after the onset. Autopsy findings were consistent with Wernicke’s encephalopathy and pellagra encephalopathy. Furthermore, laminar cortical necrosis with vacuoles and astrocytosis was found in the second and third layers of the bilateral frontal cortices, suggesting Morel’s laminar sclerosis. The lesions were mainly located in the bilateral primary motor cortices. Involvement of the lower part of the left primary motor cortex may be associated with apraxia of speech in our case. “
“S. J. Crocker, R. Bajpai, C. S. Moore, R. F. Frausto, G. D. Brown, R. R. Pagarigan, J. L. Whitton and A. V.