It has been shown recently in a murine model that local oral DCs

It has been shown recently in a murine model that local oral DCs bind and process topically applied ovalbumin (OVA), which leads to the induction of IFN-γ- and VX809 IL-10-producing

T cells [41]. Furthermore, it is tempting to speculate that TLR-4 activation by components originating from commensal bacteria or supplemented to SLIT formulations might serve as adjuvants. In this regard, a recently published study in a mouse model supports the assumption that TLR-2 activation on purified murine oral mucosal DCs promotes IFN-γ- and IL-10-producing T cells [42], resulting in stronger Th1 and tolerogenic immune responses. Altogether, the published data suggest that mucosal DCs are prone to induce proinflammatory as well as tolerogenic immune responses. Nasal mucosal DCs facilitate allergic immune responses in atopic individuals, while oral mucosal DCs such as oLCs induce preferentially a regulatory immune response, which on one hand supports the immunological homeostasis within oral mucosal tissue, and on the other hand propagates the desired allergen-specific tolerance induction during SLIT. The variable subtypes of DCs, as well as functions of DCs located in different microenvironments such as non-inflammatory versus inflammatory skin or mucosal tissue, account for the highly versatile character of DCs, ranging from good to very bad players

of allergic–inflammatory immune responses. The notion that regulatory missions of DCs are modulated directly by the character Tamoxifen cost of the microenvironment provides several exciting ways in which DCs might be decisive for the prevention or promotion of allergic–inflammatory reactions and a healthy or diseased immune state, both under physiological conditions or as therapeutic target cells. This work was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB704 TPA4, KFO209 TP A1) and a BONFOR grant of the University of Bonn. N.N. is supported by a Heisenberg-Professorship Anidulafungin (LY303366) of the DFG NO454/5-2. The authors have

received grants and lecture fees from Alk Abello, Stallergenes, Novartis, Bencard Allergy Therapeutics and the German Research Council. “
“National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA In helper T cells, IL-13 is traditionally considered a Th2-type cytokine that is coexpressed with IL-4. Using mouse models of immunization and autoimmunity, we demonstrate that IL-13 is frequently uncoupled from IL-4, and that it can be produced by both IFN-γ+ Th1 cells and IL-17+ Th17 cells. We report that these IL-13-producing Th1 and Th17 cells are distinct from classical IL-4+ Th2 cells and that they are relatively common, appearing in the context of both protective and pathogenic T-cell responses.

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