Interestingly, MUL_3926 was the only rhomboid-like element in mycobacteria. In contrast, the genome organization for Batimastat Rv0110 orthologs was not conserved, and mirrored the genetic relatedness of mycobacteria (figure 2). As such, the orthologs from MTC species, M. marinum and M. ulcerans, which are genetically related and are assumed to have the same M. marinum-like progenitor [39, 40, 45, 46] had similar organization for Rv0110 ortholog. Downstream and upstream of the rhomboid were respectively, the transmembrane acyltransferase and the Proline-Glutamate
polymorphic GC rich-repetitive sequence EPZ015666 solubility dmso (PE-PGRS) encoding genes. PE-PGRS occurs widely in M. marinum and MTC genomes  but it was a pseudogene upstream MUL_4822 of M. ulcerans. The distances between MTC Rv0110 orthologs and the neighboring genes were long, in contrast to the short distances between Rv1337 rhomboids and their neighboring genes. Figure 2 The genome organization for Rv0110 mycobacterial orthologs not conserved. White open arrows indicate pseudogenes; green solid arrows, Rv0110 orthologs; black solid arrows, rhomboid surrounding genes; open boxes, SBI-0206965 price distances between rhomboids and neighboring genes (which were big except in M. gilvum, M. vanbaalenii, and Mycobacterium spp. JLS, Mks and Mmcs). Similarly, the genome
organization for the Rv0110 orthologs of M. gilvum, M. vanbaalenii and Mycobacterium species M.Jls, Mkms and Mmcs was also similar. Upstream and downstream the rhomboid was, respectively, the glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein/dioxygenase
encoding gene and a gene that encodes a hypothetical protein. In contrast to MTC species, the Rv0110 orthologs in these species were close or contiguous with the neighboring genes (figure 2). The genome organization of MAB_0026 of M. abscessus and MSMEG_5036 of M. smegmatis were unique to these species (not shown). Many bacterial genomes contain a single copy of rhomboid. However, filamentous actinobacteria such as Streptomyces coelator and Streptomyces scabiei have as many as four or five copies of rhomboid-like genes. Since multi-copy before rhomboids in prokaryotic genomes are not yet characterized, it is not certain whether prokaryotic rhomboids can also have diverse functions, similar to multi-copy rhomboids in eukaryotic genomes. Mycobacteria and actinobacteria at large exhibit diverse physiological and metabolic properties. It remains to be determined whether the diversity in number, nature and functions of rhomboids can contribute to the complex lifestyles of these organisms . Similarity between the two mycobacterial rhomboid paralogs Across the genus, the similarity between the two mycobacterial rhomboid paralogs was as low as that between prokaryotic and eukaryotic rhomboids (~10-20% identity) . Since paralogs perform biologically distinct functions , the two mycobacterial rhomboids may have distinct roles.