Interestingly, MoDC that was incubated with PIC-CM prior to coculturing them with allogeneic PBMC generated a highly increased buy FDA-approved Drug Library release of IFN-γ in MLR culture supernatants. Both changes in MoDCs, i.e. upregulation of CD40, CD86, and increased MLR stimulation, were abrogated by blocking IFN-β. Surprisingly, MoDC incubated with PIC-CM did not induce IL-12p70 secretion; however, previous data showed that under certain conditions, IL-12p70 can be dispensable for IFN-γ induction. Indeed, in some virus infections, the lack of IL-12 has little or no effect on the induction
of Th1 immunity and systemic production of IL-12p70 could not be detected after in vivo administration of poly I:C, whereas poly I:C was superior at inducing systemic type I IFNs and Th1 immune response [42-45]. Murine BMDCs also secreted higher levels of IL-12p70 when they were matured in the presence of PAU-B16 CM. Therefore, a novel aspect of the use of dsRNA mimetics in cancer immunotherapy can be assumed: when tumor
cells are activated with dsRNA ligands, they secrete IFN-β at levels that are capable of improving the maturation state and function of DCs, promoting a Th1 response that could be independent of the induction of IL-12. Tumor-derived factors significantly alter the generation of DCs from hematopoietic progenitors, increase the accumulation of JQ1 datasheet myeloid suppressor cells, and inhibit DCs maturation [22, 23]. When MoDCs were matured with different TLR ligands in the presence of tumor CM, expression of co-stimulatory molecules, secretion of IL-12p70, and induction of IFN-γ in MLR were significantly diminished. In contrast, when the maturation was done in the presence of PIC-CM, all Palmatine these parameters were improved. Indeed, TLR-induced IL-12p70 secretion by DC has been
shown to depend on a type I IFN autocrine–paracrine loop . Thus, the simultaneous presence of IFN-β plus the exogenously added TLR ligand, and/or other factors present in PIC-CM such as HMGB1 or other cytokines, could be producing a synergistic effect on maturing MoDCs that can be readily observed in the enhanced values of secreted IL-12p70 and the better capacity of driving an IFN-γ response in the MLR. Similar results were obtained in our previous work, in which murine prostate adenocarcinoma and melanoma cells (TRAMPC2 and B16, respectively) secrete low but reliably detected levels of IFN-β upon TLR4 activation . These low levels of IFN-β were enough to enhance the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on BMDCs as well as to increase the levels of IL-12 secreted. In addition, the frequency of CD11c+ tumor infiltrating cells expressing IL-12 was increased in mice bearing LPS-B16 tumors .