Immunotherapy has a 20-year history in treatment of metastatic kidney cancer. High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is administered in some countries, whereas low-dose IL-2 and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) are popular in Japan. Molecular-targeted drugs, including sunitinib, bevacizumab and sorafenib, are being used for previously untreated and refractory patients. Asian and non-Asian populations have shown large differences in the incidences of adverse events with sorafenib and sunitinib. Consensus Statement: Kidney cancer is relatively uncommon in Asia compared
with the West, but its incidence is increasing in more developed Asian nations. Guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network , etc., for treating metastatic renal VX-680 clinical trial cell carcinoma are based on Phase III clinical trials conducted primarily in Western patients. Targeted therapies are now becoming primary recommendations, but efficacy/toxicity data from Asian patients are lacking.
Some drugs cause adverse effects in Asians because their recommended dosages are optimal for Caucasians but may be too high for Asians. Further research is necessary to develop optimal treatment strategies for Asians.”
“Background\n\nRecent literature on the lack of efficiency and acceptability of publicly provided health services has led to an interest in the use of partnerships with the private sector to deliver public services.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo assess the effectiveness of contracting out healthcare services in BVD-523 LGX818 solubility dmso improving access to care in low and middle-income countries and, where possible, health outcomes.\n\nSearch strategy\n\nWe searched a wide range of international databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, in addition to development studies and economic databases. We also searched the websites and online resources of numerous international agencies, organisations
and universities to find relevant grey literature. The original searches were conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. An updated search in MEDLINE was carried out in May 2009.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nContracting out health services is defined as the provision of healthcare services on behalf of the government by non-state providers. Studies had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: health care utilisation, health expenditure, health outcomes or equity outcomes. Studies also needed to use one of the following study designs: randomised controlled trial, non-randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis or controlled before and after study.